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*"*. « »M!fajflH 


t^^^^^— '-■ 



BY v\ 


Mrs. MARYi,^ helm, 




»i ^am II 




1 ' 





Entered accoiding to Act of Congress, in the year J 884, by 

in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

* V % 

v.'c. \\< y *^{*^t.^S 



^» ^ 


Memobibs (poetry). 

SCBAPS OP Early Texas History— 

Nine Periods of Texas History ; What Mr. Jeffer- 
son and Mr. Clay thought of Texas ; Beginning 
of the Struggle; Col. Austin justifies the people 
of Texas ; First Collision at Oonzales ; Texans 
march on San Antonio ; Battle of Goncepcion ; 
The Grass Fight 5 Surrender of San Antonio to 
the victorious Texans, with 1400 men, 21 pieces ' 

of artillery, 500 muskets, ammunition, clothing, 
etc.; Santa Anna, with 7,500 men, invades Texas ; 
he besieges San Antonio; the brave garrison 
answers his summons to surrender by a cannon- 
shot of defiance ; Personal Eeminiscences of the 
author during this period ; her voyage from Kew 
Orleans to the town of Matagorda; Effect of the 
news of the Fall of the Alamo on the inhabitants ; 
Preparations for Flight; General Flight of the 
Inhabitants ; The Author arrives at Sabine Bay 
and makes a temporary sojourn at Beaumont; 
Incidents of the voyage; Life at Beaumont ; Good 
News ; March of the Army to the Coast ; Battle 
. of San Jacinto and capture of Santa Anna ; Wild 
Bejoicings ; The Author attempts going to Gal- 
veston by Water, but failing, concludes to try a 
land voyage to the same point ; Personal Expe- 
rience by the Way ; Safe arrival at Galveston and 
kind reception ; Voyage to the Mouth of the 
Brazos on a Texan man-of-war; Experiences of a 
Twenty-five mile Land Journey ; Safe Arrival at 
Home 3-27 


Stoby of an Old Pioneer— 

Ohapter I. Contains a few^of the author's per- 
sonal reminiscences of filty*years ago, besides 
something introductory to the narrative that fol- 
lows 28-30 

Ghapter II, Departure of "Jthe author and her 
husband, with a company of sixty immigrants, 
for Texas ; down the Alleghany river, the Ohio, 
and the Mississippi to New Orleans 30-33 

Chapter III. New Orleans during the Christ- 
mas Holidays of 1828 ; a correction ; the trip of 
the schooner Little Zoe ; baffling wind prolong 
the voyage ; short allowance of water and pro- 
visions ; the vessel springs a leak ; a bunch of 
sea- weed kindly fills up the hole and stops the 
leak ; safe arrival at last in Arransas harbor 33-35 

Chapter IV. Something about the Indians of the 
country prior to the author's arrival 5 the pas- 
sengers go deer hunting; interview with the 
wild Indians 36-38 

Chapter V. Alarm on board the vessel ; the hunt- 
ing party make its appearance and the Indians 
decamp; renewal of the voyage and arrival at 
Matagorda Bay in 1829; something more about 
the Indians, their customs, manners, etc 38-43 

Chapter VI. Impressions of the author and a few 
general reflections on the condition of society in 
the new country 43-45 

Chapter VII. The military post ; who occupied it ; 
other buildings ; kindness of the inhabitants to 
the new-comers ; the author commences to teach 
both week-day and Sunday school 5 first graves 
at Matagorda 45-48 


■X- ■ > ::? 


Chapter VIII. Some unwritten History ; condition 
of affairs prior to the Texas Ee volution ; capture 
of a fort by Texans at the mouth of the Brazos 
river; arrival of a Mexican fleet 48-50 

Chapter IX. Additional narrative of the voyage 
from Sew Orleans to Matagorda ; description of 
the author's new home 50-52 

Chapter X. How the Mexicans compare with the 
Anglo-Americans ; scraps of early events in the 
revolutionary struggle and personal recollections 
of the author 52-55 

Chapter XI. Capture of La Bahia; Benjamin Mi- 
lam ; massacre of Colonel Fannin and his men ; 
the Alamo butchery; flight of the inhabitants. . 55-56 

Chapter XII. Incidents of a voyage made by the 
author in 1835 from New Orleans to New York.. 56-59 


Dialogue with an imaginary niece 60-82 

Essays. 83-87 

Eesult of Theolooy Found on Texas Coasts— 

What Can I Do ? (Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4.) 88-91 

Thoughts on Family, Church and State 91-93 

Extracts from Letters • 93-96 

On Music (Nos. 1 and 2) 96-99 

Letter to my Ood-children 99-102 

Veterans of Texas , .102-103 

Extracts from Letters on the Church .103-106 

To a Churchwoman whose Children had Joined 

the Methodists 105-107 

Extracts of Letters to a Methodist 107-112 

Letter to a Baptist Sister 113-119 

Scraps of. Thkology Found on the Coast of 

John Wesley's Tract., 120-123 

Gommunicated 123-126 

What Mr. Charles Wesley says 126-127 

Extracts from Dr. Coke's Letters to Bishops 

White and Seaburv 127-131 

Extract of a Letter from Dr. Coke to William 

Wilberforce 131-132 

Eminent Men on the Book of Common Prayer. .132-133 
An Incident of the Texas Revolution 134 

Appendix — 

Compiled from the writings and field notes of E. 
R. Wightman, first Surveyor of the Colony of 
Col. Stephen F. Austin ', 137-195 



ifrr-.-TT.- rrT'-iii"~^ 

■ ■ ■ ..-*(» f.-V-V-'' 


When the Naturalist and Philosopher dives into the long 
buried minerals and deposits of the earth, and finds treasures 
hid avray for the blessing and the use of future generations, 
he involuntarily raises his thoughts in silent adoration to 
Him with whom one day is as a thousand years. We 
realize that, in His Providence, the choicest and rich- 
est portion of this globe has been so hidden away for 
the use of the overgrown populations of Europe, Asia and 
Africa, as well as for our own increasing population. 
The great variety of climate as well as of products it is 
capable of producing makes amends for the stern and 
sterile regions of the North in both hemispheres. A 
very paradise for man! Perhaps as large as all France, 
or six or seven of the largest middle States, or all of Great 
Britain ; with one thousand miles of sea coast, with harbors 
at easy distance and numerous inland bays, easy access was 
given to immigrants before the days of railroads were on 

this continent. 

The Author. 



I hear the muffled tramp of years 
Come stealing up the slope of time ; 

They bear a train of smiles and tears, 
Of burning hopes and dreams sublime. 

But future years may never fling 
Around their swiftly passing hours, 

Like those that come on fleeting wing 
From memory *s golden train of flowers. 

The morning breeze of long ago 
S^yeeps o'er my brain with soft control, 

Fanning the embers to a glow, 
Amid the ashes of my soul. 

And by their dim and flickering light 
I see thy beauteous form appear. 

Like one returned from wanderings bright 
To bless my lonely moments here. 

" - ••••'^iifnysgr'''ffriirsi 




► • ^ 

It may not be amiss to say that Texas has experienced 
many changes in her Political Government : 

First. Claimed and controlled by the Monarchy of Spain 
by right of discovery. 

Second. Ceded by Spain to France in 1800. 

Third. Transferred by France to^ the United States by 
the treaty of April, 1803. 

Fourth, Exchanged for Florida and receded to Spain by 
the United States under the treaty of February, 1819. 

Fifth. Severed from Spain and made part of the Repub- 
lic of Mexico by the Revolution prior to J 824. 

Sixth. Erected into the Republic of Texas by the 
Revolution of 1835-'36. 

Seventh. Annexed to the United States and became a 
State of the Union, February, 184G. 

Eighth. Adopted the Ordinance of Secession, and be- 
came one of the Confederate States in 1861. 

Ninth. Restored to the Union after the fall of the Con- 
federacy in 1865. 

Some of the temptations to American enterprise and ener- 
gy for the settlement of Texas, may be seen from the follow- 
ing extracts : 

The first is from Mr. Jefferson, 1 he proloundest political 


philosopher of his age, and the great father of the American 
Democracy. In a letter to President Monroe, written on the 
the 4th of May, 1820. He says "to us the Province of Texas 
will become the richest State of our Union, without any ex- 
ception. Its Southern part will make more sugar than we 
can consume, and the Eed Eiver in its North, is the most 
luxurious country on the earth." 

The next is from Mr. Clay, the great American commoner, 
in a speech he made in the House of Eepresentatives on the 
3d of April, 1820, in opposition to the exchange of Texas for 
Flofida. Speaking of Texas, he says : "Its superficial ex- 
tent is three or four times that of Florida ; the climate is de- 
licious ; the soil fertile, * * * the productions of which it 
is capable are suitable to our wants." * * * * 
Farther on he says, "It is quite evident that it is the order of 
•Providence, that it is an inevitable result of the principle of 
population, that the whole of the continent, including Texas, 
is to be peopled in the process of time. The question is by 
whose race shall it be peopled ? In our hands it will be 
peopled by free men, carrying with them our language, our 
laws, our liberties; establishing on the prairies of Texas 
temples dedicated to the simple and devout worship of God, 


incident to our religion ; and temples dedicated to the free- 
dom which we adore next to Him." He continues — "in the 
hands of others, it may become the habitation of despotism 
and slaves, subject to the vile domination of the inquisition 
And superstition." 

Prior to the revolt of Mexico from Old Spain, the country 
of all Mexico was barred from foreigners, no one was allowed 
to travel in the Spanish dominions in Mexico — even Hum- 
boldt was taken prisoner and carried to the city of Mexico — 
just the thing for him, he wanted to see the country. Hum- 
boldt's curiosity was great, and it afforded him a chapter of 
■his travels. 

The fear of hostile Indians was such that every Eomau 
'Catholic Mission to civilize and christianize the Indians, had 
walls surrounding all the missions. The material of whose 
buildings were brought from Old Spain, over military roads 


then a barren waste for hundreds of miles, so great was their 
fear of hostile Indians, who made It their boast that they only 
permitted the Spaniards to live, to raise cattle and horses for 
them to steal. The Mexicans became tired of sach captivity 
and made a contract with Moses Austin — who died before 
anything was done, in 1823--to colonize Texas. His son 
Stephen carried out his contract. 

The temptations of Americans to occupy lands so rich, in 
a climate so salubrious, with productions of the soil so 
various and valuable, when it could be obtained so cheap, in 
large bodies, were very great. The country so far as it had 
government, was most wretchedly governed in 1827. The 
population of Texas was so few, about 10,000 — negroes, 
friendly Indians and all — counted in 1828, of course it could 
not be represented in Congress, and it was coupled with the 
State of Coahuila, for that purpose, at the Capitol of the City 
of Mexico, where the majority would represent another race 
and another language, while the representation of Texas 
amounted to no representation at all. Colonel Austin, as our 
representative, was thrown into prison, a dungeon, for two 
years — in darkness without communication with his friends 
and no Teading matter. Meantime, Mexican soldiers were 
gathering about the seaport places, under pretence of col- 
lecting duties, and Imprisoning some of our most useful and 
respectable citizens, and threatening to send them to Mexico 
for military trial. Our citizens chafed under this ordeal. Two 
or three forts at one time were putting on airs, so that it was 
unsafe for one set of men to leave for the fight of another 
fort. We all knew that a revolution was being inaugurated 
in Old Mexico, but did not care which side beat, so that 
Colonel Austin could be released. Finally at the mouth of the 
Brazos in June, 1832, we heard cannon all one night, and in 
the morning we only guessed what it meant. I think it was 
the second or third day after, we saw from our window, the 
sails of four vessels, sailing directly toward Fort Valasco. 

Santa Anna's party had been victorious and had liberated 
Colonel Austin, and promised him that Texas should have 
privileges she had not had before, and had brought Colonel 


Austin home and was prepared to capture the fort, which re- 
presented the opposite party, and lo, and behold ! our men 
made a virtue of necessity, and greeted Santa Anna and 
pretended that they had taken the fort in his behalf. The 
particulars of this affair is all told in Baker's Scrap Book, 
well known to Old Texans. So the war cloud cleared away 
for a season. It was thought that Santa Anna was sincere 
at the time, and I think Colonel Austin was sent the second 
time to Mexico, but when he came home the last time in the 
fall of 1835, he was astonished to find all Texas in arms and 
fighting, and conquering all before them, Santa Anna was 
now Dictator and ignored the States of Mexico, and his own 
will was the people's law. Colenel Austin said the people 
were not to blame, and could not be greatly censured. The 
Constitution of 1824, was ignored of course. 

* * * * Our colonists owed obedience to the government 
of 1824^ now destroyed in all the other states of Mexico. 
While Mexico had some eight millions, Texas had by this 
time only some thirty thousand, all told." Austin continues : 
" The people are peaceable from occupation and from inter- 
est and inclination, being mostly farmers, and entirely unpre- 
pared for war." In view of the wrongs and grievances in 
these extracts, and in view of the Mexican Congress requir- 
ing the disarming of the people of Texas and all other Mexi- 
can States, the people of Texas found it necessary in 1835-6 
to take their government into their own keeping and to call 
a convention of delegates, which assembled at Washington 
on the Brazos — all this after our great reverse of fortune ; 
after more than 1000 men had been killed by treachery in 
western Texas, after a capitulation ; after every man at the 
fort had been put to the sword — butchered in cold blood ! 
Suffice it to say, Texas declared her independence on the 
very day that the Fort at Lemantoma was re-taken, on March 
6th, 1836. Of course, they had not heard of it ; but there 
was no hope of peace. 

All this is such a matter of history that I shall not recap- 
itulate it here ; but the determination of the people of Texas 
to be free was intensified by every day's report, till the battle 


i>fc ■■'ill . ■'•. 


of San Jacinto, April 21. Brave leaders, and men whose 
names were as household words to the people, fell at Goliad 
and the Alamo 5 and it has been truly said that "Thermopylae 
had her messenger of defeat, but the Alamo had none." 
By the brutal butchery of Colonel Fannin and his command 
at Goliad, in violation of the terms of their surrender and in 
disregard of the usages of all civilized war, and by the cruel 
murder of Captain King and his men, it is estimated that 
about one thousand men fell in the foregoing description, 
nearly all by treachery and false pretence of capitulation. 
Having no organized Texan army west of the Colorado 
river, Houston retreated. After it was known that our men 
had all been murdered, we had on the Colorado some 1400 
men, and Gen. Houston gave every married man leave to go 
home and take his family to a place of safety. The popula- 
tion of Texas at that time was some 30,000, all counted, scat- 
tered over the country from San Augustine, on the east, to 
San Antonio, on the west, and for more than one hundred 
miles north, without an army or navy or military supplies or 
organization. The Mexican nation numbered some eight or 
nine millions, with an invading army of aeven or eight 
thousand and a navy of sufficient strength to keep off volun- 
teers from the States coming to the aid of the struggling 
Texans. These were all wielded at the single will of a dictator, 
who was also an able general and a cruel despot. The first 
collision in this contest was in the town of Gonzales, in the 
fall of '35, between a detachment of cavalry sent from San 
Antonio by General Ugartichea for the capture of a piece of 
artillery or cannon, and some citizens hastily drawn together. 
This occurred on the 2d of October, 1835. The Mexicans 
were beaten and driven back to San Antonio. This was the 
Leanngton of the revolution and evidenced at once the courage 
and the determination of our people. Soon after this the 
Texans united in a large force and elected Stephen P. Austin 
their general. Austin resigned, and was sent to ISew Orleans 
to procure help. The united force, under command of Gen. 
Burleson, who was elected to succeed Austin, then moved on 
the Mexican force under General Coss, at San Antonio. On 


this march and around San Antonio, in 1835, they had fre. 
quent skirmishes with the Mexicans, in all of which the 
Texans were successful. 

The battle of Concepcion was fought on the 28th of October, 
1835, a little below San^Antonio.l 'In this engagement, under 
the immediate direction of Colonels Fannin and Bowie, the 
Texans were again successful, the Mexicans losing about 
sixty killed and as many| wounded, while the Texans had but 
one killed. 

The Grass fight, on the old Benido road, near San Antonio, 
occurred 26th November,'1835. The Texans were again vic- 
torious, having two men wounded and oner missing. About 
sixty Mexicans were killed and a number wounded. The 
siege of San Antonio continued till the 10th of December, 

1835, when the Texans,'under the immediate command of 
Benjamin E. Milam and Frank W, Johnson, stormed the 
enemy's works, fighting from street to street and from house 
to house, as they advanced.) [On the 7th of December, 1835, 
Milam fell, while urging his men on to victory, and Colonel 
Johnson succeeded to the command. Fighting continued 
till the night of December 9th, and on the morning of the 10th, 
General Coss surrendered his army and fortifications, includ- 
ing the Alamo, 1400 men, twenty-one pieces of cannon, 500 
muskets, ammunition, clothing, etc. About one hundred and 
fifty Mexicans were supposed to be killed. The Texan loss 
was but few. Thus far the][arms of Texas were successful, 
with losses so small, as to excite our wonder when compared 
with the loss of the enemy. 

But we must now look on^scenee of Mexican success, at- 
tended by barbarism, butchery and cruelty, and enmity such 
as has not been seen in modern times or in conflicts among 
Christian nations. Santa'Anua was marshaling his hosts, of 
about 7500 men, leading them in for the invasion of Texas, 
for the massacre of her people, and for the desolation of the 
country. He reached San Antonio on the 23d of February, 

1836. Colonel Travis withdrew his guard from the town into 
the Alamo. The siege commenced — one of the most mem- 
orable in history. One hundred and fifty-six at first, reinforced 

I*- ' r ^ II I - - - " — ^" ■ '■ - ■ 

; ' . . ■■■■■■ i ■ 'IS. 


by thirty-two afterwards, making one hundred and eighty- 
eight only defending a fort poorly constructed for either 
strength or defense, with but few guns and a limited supply 
of ammunition, against an investing force of more than 4000 
men. Prom that to the 6th of March— twelve anxious and 
dreadful days— the siege continued. Santa Anna's summons 
to surrender, on the 23d of February, was answered by a 
cannon-shot of defiance, and from that hour the blood-red 
Mexican flag floated over the Mexican lines. The determina- 
tion of the Texans was never to retreat and never to surrender. 
* * * Out of the war of 1836 we secured to Texas 
274,356 square miles of country, much larger than the Aus- 
trian Empire, or the German Empire, or Great Britain, in- 
cludingr^reland and Scotland, or France or Italy. While 
indirectly, the annexation of Texas to the United States by 
the war which ensued between the States and Mexico, more 
than one million of square miles of territory were added to 
the United States, about 560,000,000 acres of land including 
all the lands to the Pacific Ocean. A country larger than 
the original thirteen states was added to the Union. At the 
time of the revolution, Texas had about 30,000 people, she 
has now over 2,000,000, besides the unknown million that 
has occupied all the vast domain secured by the war of 1848 
with Mexico, growing out of our revolution of 1835-'36 with 
Mexico. So Mr. Clay's declaration in Congress of 1820, has 
come to pass. 

The scraps of the following pages will tell of the retreat 
of the 30,000 inhabitants, where more suffering ensued than 
was ever known in any country in the Nineteenth Century. 
In the summer of 1835, I made my first visit to New York 
and was there while all our first success was in operation. 
On our way home the news of the Mexican defeat at San 
Antonio, we heard in New Orleans, where the Texas cause was 
very popular, and our little schooner was soon crowded with 
volunteers to share in the glory of Texas. The clouds of 
war seemed to forbode no good to myself and sister, who was 
making her first visit with me, after being separated from 
each other for seven years. It was rumored that Mexico 



had a war vessel on the coast of Texas to enable them to 
keep off volunteers as well as to keep the inhabitants from 
escaping to the States, so my husband bought two cannon, 
and myself and sister spent much time in preparing little 
bags of powder to load the cannon. To my horror, I could 
hear them planning to board the wai vessel, sword in hand, 
as that would be the way to capture, for their cannon would 
be so much larger than ours, and they seemed in great hopes 
of such a chance. After a sail of some days, all at once 
three vessels hove in sight. We did not expect so many. In 
vain I implored the Captain to retreat. Without a reply, he 
kept steadily on his course. Great was the excitement of our 
volunteers, every old cutlass was being rubbed up and every 
gun reloaded. After a short time the land hove in sight, 
and on nearer approach, those vessels proved to be our sum- 
mer houses on the beach, only three miles from our home. 
The Captain offered to put us ashore, but it was discovered 
that so many of the volunteers had determined to get into 
the boat, it was thought imprudent for us to try to land, and 
so we had to go sixty miles down the beach to Matagorda 
pass, and there most likely would be the enemy; but no 
enemy appeared and all the volunteers were landed here 
and made their way west to join our army — all of whom were 
massacred with our men the following spring. Forty miles; 
took us to the town of Matagorda, and then twenty miles up 
the bay to our home ; and this last trip exposed us to more 
danger, for want of ballast in a strong wind, than all our 
other dangers. We arrived just at the break of day, and the 
boat returned at once. My husband left us wrapped in our 
cloaks, while he went home to send a team for our baggage 
and horses for us to ride. We got comfortably warm in the 
lee of a big log and in the morning sun, and when the men 
came, they could not find us, there being no track through 
the tall grass. Finally hunger induced us to undertake the 
walk of three miles, while every step was obstructed by wire 
grass pointing towards us, so that the walk was very labo- 
rious. About half way we met our protectors with horses, 
who blamed us for going to sleep while on guard. 

r ■ 11 ■ '" - '-'• ' ~ '' 



As there were no mails in the whole country, we had to 
depend on reports. Many of the men were detained by 
measles and other sickness, and had not returned when we 
got home in February, ISo one seemed to think we were in 
danger of another invasion. Large stocks of goods as usual 
were brought into the country — farmers as usual planted 
and made fences. *Wq had brought from Kew Orleans a 
large stock of goods for our own use, such as groceries and 
a cook stove, the first in the country, and a crate of crock- 
ery, etc., we had one hundred bushels of last year's growth 
of sweet potatoes in good condition, not sold. 

Our returned soldiers, so called, were full of anecdotes of 
their own experience, and as it^was February 23d, that Santa 
Anna invested San Antonio the second time, the news came 
very slow and when it came, it reacted on our civilians with 
fearful effect. The people in the country seemed to have 
gotten the news first — we lived rather isolated, depending on 
the coast for the outside* news of the world. As the news 
came thicker and faster after the fall of the Alamo, the 
neighbors began to congregate at our house. Mr. Wightman's 
advice was to go u^ the creek a few miles and fortify and 
hide our boat in the thicket of trees and return at nights for 
food as we needed it, and that we could not be traced or 
found. No one would agree to it, not even his wife, who re- 
plied "all that a man hath will be given for his life." While 
we were hesitating an old friend made his appearance and 
expressed his astonishment to find us. He said he had not 
seen a human being for two days 5 that no doubt the enemy 
was then in Matagorda, and that scouts would be sent out 
before night, and his advice was to make the San Bernard 
river between us and the enemy before night, or we would 
all be prisoners, as the whole country was evacuated, and 
the enemy would be very bold. There were not animals 
enough to carry so many twelve miles to the above named 
stream, as each family of course, must carry something. All 
went to work to help hide our goods. Our crockery was sunk 
in the margin of Cany Creek, our beds were carried to a 
thicket and a rude shelter put over them of boards; our 


one hundred bushels of potatoes were in one large heap and 
covered with straw and earth, and our corn in the crib ; we 
had planted our corn for the year, and our fences were in good 
order. One cart carried only such things as support life, and 
left luxuries and groceries, for only a limited amount could 
be carried. We arrived on the west bank of the Bernard in 
time to make a raft, and to our astonishment our neighbors, 
that had mixed up their stuff with ours, would not lend a 
hand to help; so all the women and the lew colored ones of my 
family, especially our man of color, who was as much at home 
in the water as out of it, or we might not have succeeded — 
as my husband was sick — and last of all, our neighbors that 
would not lend a hand crossed over on our raft. I suppose 
the reason of their conduct was, that they did not want to 
get to Velasco too soon, for fear of being forced to fight or 
required to go and find the army, but no reason was given ; 
they evidently did not expect to return or they would have 
had some shame. We slept on the beach and arrived in 
Velasco about noon and found the residents all gone, some 
few had come from the country to get shipping to the States, 
as was the case with some of our company. The stores were 
full of new goods. A new vessel was then going around to 
Sabine with the families of the owners on a pleasure trip. 
We felt that we were fugitives without a home, as all we 
could hear about our army was, that all the men that had 
families, had the privilege of taking them to a place of safety, 
which of course was out of the country, finally, men would 
return and say they could not find the army. The few men 
at the mouth of the Brazos concluded to remain and fortify 
and keep a set of spies to look out for the enemy. The re- 
mains of the old fort of 1832 was there, and if danger seemed 
imminent, a steamboat wasi^hand to retreat and steam kept 
up. The men of coursouaSnolas they pleased, for they were 

not under military rule, till there were but seven men left. 
After some had taken possession of the steamboat and were 
determined to go, whether their comrades would or not ; but 
those that were determined not to leave till necessity com- 
pelled them, actually lit the match to fire the cannon to stop 
the retreat, and did stop it. 



But I must go back to my own retreat. My husband had 
got the consent of the owners of the new sailing-vessel before 
mentioned for his own family and relatives to sail round to 
the Sabine. We soon discovered that this vessel had put 
the river Brazos between us and the vessel, but we procured 
a boat, notwithstanding, and went aboard ; but they would 
not take our baggage. While it was evident that wherever 
we landed we would have to camp out, which to old Texans 
was no great cross, but we were horrified to find not eVen 
our provisions, or beds or cooking utensils, were permitted 
to come on board. There were plenty of empty berths in 
the cabin, but they demurred when we wanted to put our 
bonnets, etc., in the empty berths. It being too warm in the 
cabin, we did not care to occupy it, especially the seasick, 
which proved to be the whole company, excepting myself. 
The vessel had an awning and it was pleasant on deck. I 
had paid the captain for the whole company all he required. 
I noticed he made an apology that he was only a sailing- 
captain, and had no voice in anything besides. My servants 
all made themselves useful below, especially a boy sixteen 
years of age, whom we bought in New Orleans and who had 
been a cook on a boat. He fell right into the work, without 
pay demanded or offered. When the first meal was ready 
none of us were invited. I sent* for some soup for the sick. 
It was denied. I went myself and took it, under a remon- 
strance. I then ordered my boy to get another meal for the 
company. The sick demanded all my attention, and I made 
conveniences for them denied by the owners — I made retreats 
with pieces of sail cloth. As I was spokesman, I insisted in 
private to my friends that, as we should soon be in port in 
the Sabine, we must try to stand it without a quarrel. They 
tried to take my advice, though many of them were much 
older than myself. We had seven women, one white man 
(an invalid), three white children, one colored man, with wife 
and child, one year old, and my cook, Anthony, whom I had 
already learned to respect and did afterwards learn to read. 
Besides these there were my own sister and a young lady in 
my care. As all my patients recovered they would fain have 


something to eat, and, it being noon, I expected we would 
surely all be invited to dinner, just as the vessel entered 
Sabine Bay ; but no. I went down myself and ordered a 
good dinner for all of us — the first time we all ate together. 
I had all my husband's cash, $2000, stitched in my corset, 
as we had just returned from New York and my husband had 
sold a tract of land there, and as there were no places of de- 
posit, I had the care of it. So I paid all the expenses of the 
whole company and loaned in the end $80 to our sick man. 
I had prayed some years before that he would ask me some 
day for money. I had tried to borrow from him on the oc- 
casion of Mr. Wightman's sickness, when he was about to 
meet with a loss from want of health to attend to his business. 
The time had come, and I let him have the amount he asked 
for. When the vessel came to anchor in Sabine Bay, all the 
men went ashore to hunt. We were still some twenty miles 
from the place where we expected to stop, there being no 
high lands in the lower Neches. After all the men but one 
had left, this one seemed to feel the dignity of his situation, 
and exclaimed : "I am Captain, pow !'' My sister responded : 
^*If that is so, I wish you would tell me why we were not in- 
vited to dinner to-day f He responded that he knew nothing 
about it; that the wife of tjie owner was his sister, but he 
could not tolerate such an outrage as that. Said sister heard 
it all. She responded that she was only a passenger herself. 
The ice now was broken, and I told her what I thought : that 
I had paid the price — all that was required — for all my com- 
pany ; that I had in all my late travels been treated with 
the greatest courtesy ; that I had always praised the great 
courtesy of the southern people, and never in my life had 
reason to think different till now. I had realized that I could 
not get a smile from any of the company in the vessel. 

Mrs. Col. Fannin and children were of the pleasure party. 
I was pleased with her deportment, knowing that she was 
probably a widow, and believing that she had been warned 
not to recognize us refugees. I pitied more than blamed, 
also, some other ladies whom I had known years before and 
at whose homes I had received hospitality when traveling a:- 


over Texas with my husband, as his business, for surveying 
fees, called for. In those days I was with him in all those 
places, and was always invited to return ; but now I was ig- 
nored. While we thus lay at anchor in Sabin^^ Bay, I think 
the very day of our arrival, came a sailing sloop from the 
Mouth of the Brazos, with all our goods and provisions, that 
my husband had sent, knowing our vessel had refused to take 
them. This crew seemed to understand the situation, and 
were full of sympathy for us, while we complained never a 
word. They insisted on giving us a free meal on the spot. 
We excused them, however, and felt quite independent now 
that our goods and provisions had arrived. They landed us 
at the place now called Beaumont, which then consisted of 
only one large warehouse, containing one large room full of 
all kinds of goods, mostly groceries, yet in boxes^ and a due 
assortment of dry goods ready to sell to the refugees now on 
the Way. Eeport said that benevolent people at New Orleans 
had ^eard of the vacation of the whole country and had sent 
these provisions to meet the absolute wants of the starving 
multitude. I am sure I heard nothing of the kind while there ; 
but a thriving trade was carried on w.hile the vast multitude 
remained. So lonely was the place, we dare not camp far 
from each other ; but we found that about a mile west of there 
was one family living that would be glad to have company, 
as the man of the house was in the army, but they had never 
heard from him and had no idea where the army was. We 
got permission to form a tent with some heavy blankets. We 
had merely to keep off the sun, as there was not a tree near. 
We found the family at home, and consisting of a mother, a 
son about grown and a daughter some twelve years of age. 
We found our tent so uncomfortable that we begged permis- 
sion to occupy the back porch of this large log-house of one 
room. The porch had sleepers but no floor; so we occupied 
a portion of the sleepers with pieces of board to receive our 

beds and hung up our blankets in front, to keep out sun and 
rain. Besides this one large room, they had a shed kitchen, 
with table, etc., for their own use, but they gave us the use 
of it, and we used to eat standing when the family had done 
with its use. 


It was not long before the head of the house made his ap- 
pearance. He said he had come home on a furlough, but I 
guess that was an afterthought. As we had occasion to go 
to the warehouse for purchasing things, we saw sights that 
may never happen again, it is to be hoped. Multitudes on 
multitudes continued to make their appearance, most of whom 
had left their homes, no doubt, before'we had. Despair was 
on their faces. There were very few white men ; negroes 
seemed to be the protectors of most of the families. Whole 
wagon-loads of young darkies, too young to walk; white 
women and children footing it, while a horse would be loaded 
down with something to sustain life. Children were born on 
the route. I saw one babe that had got separated from its 
mother in the crowd, by taking different routes, but they got 
together at this great rendezvous. Of course, the animals 
had not grass enough for such a multitude, and suffered as 
much as the people. I had a talk with one lady, who said a 
false report caused her to throw away her beds and all things 
that encumbered flight, as it was reported the Indians were 
coming down from the north and the Mexicans from the west, 
mnd there was no crossing the river at that point on account 
of the marshy banks on the opposite side. Fabulous prices 
were offered to be put across, but there were not boats enough, 
and they had to go several miles before the banks would per- 
mit of a landing. I found our pleasure party in more uncom- 
fortable quarters than we were enjoying; they were occupying 
a canvas-tent in the hot sun (ground-floor) — not a shade for 
one of this multitude of thousands. All sorts of false reports 
of dangers continued to come in, and no news of any kind 
from the army. It was known they had retreated across the 
Colorado soon after the fall of the Alamo, on the 6th of March. 
They got this news before we did, and men who were willing 
to fight could not find the army. Many had been sent home 
to protect their families — in fact, all that wished to leave had 
permission, until a short time before the battle of San Jacinto. 
A report now came that our army was moving towards the 
coast. This news gave unbounded joy, and a corps of men 
at once started, with a cannon, to the army's assistance. The 


next newB wa» the battle of Sah Jacinto, and that the Dic- 
tator was a prisoner. Thdn we' aH tnrned shonting Method- 
dists. Some danced ; some laughi^ ; some clapped their 
hands. Our colored folkd, a few nights before, had showed 
signs that appeared sngpicions, and avoided giving correct 
answers when questioned as to where they had spent the 
evening. We were not afraid of hostilities from them, but that 
they might be induced to throw themselves into the arms ot 
the enemy, not knowing that the mode of Mexican slavery 
was to make the slave support himself in sickness and in 
health, as was the case, as I afterwards learned, when some 
escaped slaves sent word to their master that they would 
gladly return, if they could. After the news, otir boy, An- 
thony, came to me and asked, as he said, a thousand pardons 
for giving me an evasive answer when I asked him where he 
had spent the night. I explained to him that it was for his 
sake I wished him at home. 

Well, in a few days this vast concourse of people had gonei 
and as we canie by water it was to be hoped we might have 
a chance to return thci same wiay, and asMre Vaited I set our 
colored bbys to prepare and plant a lai*ge patch of sweet po- 
tatoes for our host, who in the 'm^iitime kept us in wild 
game of variouis s6rts ft^e of chatg^'. *Soon after the evacu* 
ation of Beaumont, the crowd gathered around the big store 
house, it was shut up and nothing could be bought, and we 
had got out of breadstuffs and tired of wild meat and black- 
berries, which grew in the greatest abundance.' 

Our host and his son proposed going to Galveston by 
water. Though they knew nothing about sailing, it was 
thought they could get there in one day after leaving Sabine 
Bay. I was anxious to reduce our numbers so as to have the 
fewer to feed — so I took my part of the family, to-wit: my 
sister^ and the young lady in my care, an orphan girl, and my 
colored family. Head winds kept us in the bay until we had 
consumed all our provisions ; I proposed to try to go to 
Galveston by land, and so we landed at the mouth of the 
leeches, and sent our colored man to a ranch situated 
four miles from the coast, the nearest settlement being the 


village of Anahuac, twenty miles. We all camped on land 
and sent off for a team. The next morning before noon, the 
man returned with oxen and cart. Not a tree was in sight. 
We found a sort of cottage made of float- wood from the beach, 
with additions on three sid^s and the fourth side was erected 
then and there for my accommodation. Most of the rooms 
had floors, but I think my room had not — no matter. This 
cottage was enclosed by a low fe^ce, not more than one 
hundred feet from the cottage on every side, to keep off the 
herds of cattle that congregated there in the day, to be pro- 
tected from flies in smoke made from their own excresence 
dried in the sun. Of course the cattle constantly stamping, 
^nd the winds from the Oulf or any other way, brought the 
•dust direct to our lungs. On one side the shed was packed 
with skins of deer, the other with animals from top to bot- 
tom, giving out an odor very offensive for the first day, but 
after that we ceased to be annoyed. Mosquitoes annoyed 
both man and beast of nights, so we had the same tramping 
of cattle. We had our own mosquito bars, and improvised 
a bedstead by driving posts in the ground and posts to hold 
up the net. On one side of one of the sheds, lived the 
family of a merchant of Anahuac, twenty miles distant, who 
had sought this retreat until the war should cease ; they 
showed signs of riches and refinement ; I was offered the 
use of their China and mahogany tables ; only the wife — 
mother of two children — ^and a servant or two. I found her 
society made amends for my loneliness and discomforts. My 
sister was taken with the common fever of the country to 
which unacclimated persons coming here in the spring were 
subject. I found there was no chance to leave by water, so I 
hired an ox cart to take us to Oalveston, 70 miles, and only 
one place on the way where we could get water for our team. 
For ourselves we filled a five-gallon demijohn, a»d took a sup- 
ply of cooked provisions. Our new host sold me anything I 
. wished in the way of provisions. My servants cleaned out and 
renovated all his closets and cupboards, and scrubbed his 
floors, I guess for the first time. My lady friend advised me to 
leave, saying the odor of the deer skius caused the sickness ; 

I Pfiif) 




wondered if it annoyed us when we first arrived as it did her ? 
I found she was a good singer. I went to my trunk and got my 
hymn book and asked her to sing me a hymn. She replied 
she could not read. I was never more astonished, as her 
language was perfectly correct and her remarks always sen- 
sible. She gave me good advice — how to introduce myself 
at Galveston. Said I needed no introduction, that my pres- 
ence and surroundings was introduction enough; but I was 
full of fears, so far from civilization and a sick sister without 
medicine. There was room in the cart for her bed and trunks 
and our barrel of kitchen utensils and some tools, spade, etc., 
to dig for water if necessiiry, and the seat for myself and my 
prot6g^, and the negro dhild ; the older negroes walked, as 
did the driver. Every breath of the Gulf breeze seemed 
freighted with health. A large blanket formed a cover, and 
aister said she felt so much better, but still she had a burn- 
ing fever. Night came about half-way to the watering place, 
the oxen's fore feet were tied together to keep them from 
wandering off for water or falling in with wild cattle. In such 
a case, our situation would have been fearful, with a sick 
p^son not able to sit up even. We had a fire struck up with 
flint and steel — always plenty of dry float-wood on the beach. 
We made our tea and ate cold bread and meat— the sick re- 
fused everything. My lady fHend said she had often seen 
the decoction of wild sage given for fevers. It grew in great 
abundance all around. Our tin cup was brought into service 
•and the remedy offered and drank. Iq the morning the fever 
was gone. All the perspiration, which flowed profusely, was 
of the color of orange,' and everything that came in contact 
with her was of that color, and she had no more fever. The 
next day we got an early start and got to the half-way sta- 
tion, where there are two mounds, so unlike anything I ever 
saw on the coast, it caused profound admiration and wonder. 
They occupied, together with the valleys between, i^me acres, 
with both salt and fresh springs. A house on each mound, 
the top probably one hundred feet above the level of the 
Gulf. Signs of salt boiling and occupancy of workmen, were 
evident. We took possession of the empty cabin on the 



eastern or first mound ; people lived in the other cabin oa 
the western monnd^ nearly in speaking distance. I noticed 
an old-fashioned well sweep. They did not call on ns, but sent 
us some milk. We sent and bought some vegetables and 
whatever we wished. The teamster said his oxen could not 
travel without rest, so we concluded to remain another nighty 
but he exchanged oxen for a fresh team. Now, thirty*five 
miles to Galveston, so night found us eighteen miles from 
that place, and we camped again without water for our oxen. 
But for the ocean breeze, our travel would have been very 
tedious. We would rest a little in the middle of the day. 
And now as we approached Oalveston, we feared that the 
day would not be long enough ; iixai there would not be a 
boat to receive us ; no one that I knew : that there would be 
no females. But I knew that our so-called army, navy and 
government would be there, and five hundred prisoners 
would be there and soldiers to guard them ; I knew that 
all of the Texas- civil and military government combined 
was there. I had- to trust to their honor, and I could not but 
have implicit confidence in the leaders of the great cause. 
I remembered the advice of the lady who could not read, and 
I was all hope and fear. Thecare and responsibility of the 
sick and the helpless, and the hopes of hearing from home, 
to know whether I was a widow with only negroes with us. 
We watched the sun with anxiety as we neared our haven» 
All at once some dozen black and mixed Mexicans hove . in 
sight — prisoners who had been placed there- to butcher 
beeves for the Island. The only white man we saw was just 
ready to shove off with his boat of beef for the Islapd. I 
screamed and motioned for him to stop. I ran to him and im- 
plored him to take us aboard. He said he had not room. I 
offered to pay in advance and plead that I had a sick woman ; 
I did not plead fear. I had not yet paid my teamster or he 
might have been gone. The money I offered procured our 
admittance into the boat, and now new perils threatened. 
The boat was too heavily loaded and dipped water, and 
the wind was strong ; and when we came to land, the sick one 
could not walk the plank and had to be carried by our boat- 

iSmmmim^mi^mU^imutamS^m^m^ I I 

. - t " 


man, and with great difficulty coald walk to the command- 
ant's tent. We approached in great disorder of dress — dirty, 
almost shoeless, and sanbamt— not having made oar toilet 
for a long time. Howevert I a^ked to see Oeneral Morgan, 
told him my name — that I and mine were refugees returning 
from our retreat. He replied, "I know you madam ; I have 
received the hospitalities of your table in Matagorda. I make 
you welcome to all the spoils of a conquered enemy." As he 
spoke, he ordered a tent erected for me on the spot, I dis- 
covered an old friend pass, I called to him to see to the 
erecting of our tent and have an apartment in it for himself. 
And now we only suflfered for want of exercise, and if we 
presumed to show ourselves it was very unpleasant, as it 
was a novelty to the crowd. On one occasion one of the girls 
looked through a spy glass at some prisoners, officers per- 
haps, but she only looked once, for the compliment was 
returned by his throwing a kiss towards her. 

We drew our regular army rations each day, and, though I 
offered pay, it was not accepted. The enemy's war vessel, 
Montezuma, had been taken by our fleet and we were luxu- 
riating on all the good things intended for the officers of the 
navy. I had my share — I was especially delighted with some 
large yellow peaches preserved in white sugar and brandy. 
Our negroes also had a tent by themselves. They soon had 
visitors from the prisoners and were delighted with their 
new associates, though they could pot speak each other's 
language. I saw that my servants would have been no pro- 
tection if left to their care. 

The poor prisoners must have had a hard time to avoid 
the heat of the sun ; a piece of a blanket, supported on four 
small sticks driven in the ground, just high enough to cover 
the person while lying horizontally on the ground, was all 
the shade that could be procured ; while our soldiers all had 
tents. We were on the Island some two weeks, waiting for a 
schooner to go home by water. Eeport said a steamboat 
was expected from the Sabine, and we were expecting to 
meet on it the friends we had left ; but a messenger, just ar- 
rived, said another invasion was expected, and all families 


on the iBlaiid must remain for safety. My tears plead for me^ 
and I was permitted to go aboard one of onr war vessels to 
be landed at the mouth of the Brazos. So I got the promise 
of my friend to remain in the tent with the girls, and let me 
go in search of my husband, to learn whether he was dead 
or alive, or whether he had returned to our home. Know- 
ing that I had the means, he might suppose I had returned to 
jS^ew York, and so I took my man seivant, who had served us 
seven years, and went aboard a war-ship, contrary to all rules 
of naval warfare. And now came the punishment of soli> 
tary confinement, each person had his bounds that he could 
not pass. My bounds was a small cabin below deck, and 
the constant cry at stated periods was, *^ all's well," from 
certain stations on the deck where cannon was mounted 
ready to attack our enemy. 

The cholera was reported in Texas and I fancied I was 
threatened, and the ship's physician was summoned and he 
ordered a large mustard plaster. I was soon convinced 
that the cholera was preferable. I offered pay, but none 
was accepted. The Captain went ashore the next morning, 
and promised to send the boat for me as soon as the surf 
would permit, now too dangerously rough. Not a thing to 
read and no one to speak to — we remained some forty-eight 
hours before the boat returned. It brought an old acquaint- 
ance, with a letter from my husband, who had been home 
since our victory the last of April, and it was now the 1st 
of July. All our goods and provisions were destroyed. He 
had ordered and obtained provisions for most of the neigh- 
bors that had returned — the same ones that refused to help 
make our raft. 

But the trouble of getting over the twenty-five miles still 
lay before me. To get ashore from the ship was dangerous. 
I had a life preserver ; only a small bundle of clothes as my 
baggage, and my man servant took charge of that. One 
large wave came over the boat. I rose to my feet and only 
got partially wet, and this wave threw the boat high and dry 
on shore. My next thought was to find a store to get a pair 
of shoes — sorely needed. In my excitement I forgot to pay^ 

mr . .. 


and nothing was said by the salesman, but in due time I re- 
turned and paid. I remained that day and the following 
night to project plans to get home, twenty-five m^es No 
horses in the place, but those occupied by the military as 
scouts and spies, it being reported that another invasion of 
the enemy was expected. I was introduced to a man, in 
officer's epaulets, riding a fine horse. I told him that in time 
of war, it was lawful to press horses into the service, so I 
believed I must pr^ss his horse into my service. My friend 
who brought me the letter, went my security that it should 
be returned the next day, or as soon as possible. I expected 
to cross the San Bernard above the beach, knowing there 
would be no ferry-boat at the beach, and depending on the 
trail of tracks leading up to the settlements, I expected to 
dine at such crossing and reach home for supper, but to my 
astonishment about mid-day we arrived at the mouth of San 
Bernard, where we had so much trouble to cross on our re- 
treat. We failed to find the trail that led up the country, 
and so had to make the best of our situation. Having spent a 
night there on our retreat — the first thing I had the wells 
opened in the sand to get fresh water. There were two or 
three summer houses for the farmers in hot weather, filled 
with bags of cotton seed to be shipped off. The stream so 
wide it was impossible to tell which way the tide was run- 
ning — only the middle of the stieam decided it, and that at 
so great a distance all our experiments failed to decide* 
There was plenty of rope with the cotton seed bags, and so 
we began to gather float- wood to make a raft, and to tie the 
corners with rope, and have cross floors every three or 
four rounds of sticks, all tied with rope. 

We procured drinking water from the holes we had dug 
in the sand, and, finding an empty bottle on the beach, we 
filled it with water to drink on the way, expecting to dine at 
home, twelve miles off. A long rope was tied to the horse's 
head and the other end to the raft. Henry, the man, started 
on the raft with a long pole and paddled, while I drove the 
horse into the water. When the middle of the stream was 
reached it was discovered that the tide was running out, and 


the horse refused to swim, bat rolled over and over, and raft 
and horse were being towards the break- 
ers. I hollowed to the man to cut the rope and save himself. 
He did so ; bat not too soon, for he landed just in the edge 
of the surf. A moment more and he woald have been carried 
oat to sea. We now knew which way the tide flowed, and 
so made np our minds to remain over night, and sleep on the 
bags of cotton seed and fast till we could reach home. We 
had eaten nothing since breakfast, at Yelasco. Bat Henry 
said, he had found signs that some one had been there, for he 
had found fishing tackle, and so thought they had intended 
to return. He searched for food first and found bacon and 
flour under the sacks, then some coffee and a tin cup, and 
flint and steel. So he made a fire. I found a piece of an old 
bread bowl and made some dough, and wound it around a 
smooth stick and sunk oi^e end in the jground before the fire 
to roast ] heated a cup full of water, and cut pieces of bacon 
and held them in the fire on the end of a stick. I helped 
myself to the first tin of coffee, and repeated the process for 
the man. And then we waited for morning, after hobbling 
the horse and giving him drink. I slept well on. the cotton- 
seed bags, making a pillow of my wallet of clothes, and had 
the man sleep across the doorway to keep off the wolves 
and wild beasts, or tramps. 

In the morning we repeated the process of another meal 
and hung up the sidesaddle, and wrote on it with chalk that 
it was to be returaed to Yelasco soon! The horse was left 
with his forefeet tied together. We got on the raft, knowing 
this time that the tide ran up stream. I found the raft was 
rather light to bear the weight of two, and expressed my 
fears ; but the man was perfectly cool, and said he could 
take me over without any raft. His long pole helped to keep 
the raft afloat, while I paddled on the opposite side to keep 
her course in the right direction. I tied my bundle fast, but 
it got wet^ and so did the clothes I wore, and when we landed 
on the west side of the river we were nearly half a mile from 
the beach, so swift ran the tide up stream. 1 had to walk 
twelve miles and make another raft, near where were other 


. summer residences. I took my bottle of driukiog water, but 
^und myself very weak, not having recovered strength since 
iny attack. on board. ship, and when we neared the crossing I 
jliscovered a horse grazing on the opposite side. Saddle 
niifurks were plainly visible, showing he was iiot a wild horse. 
I made up ,my mind that I would, ride him home barebacked. 
So, in the heat of the day, we made another raft, having 
brought rope with us from San Bernard for that purpose. 
We crossed the mouth of Gedar creek, still six miles from 
the mouth of Cany creek. As we entered the cottage, we 
found afi old acquaintance, who had come from the peninsula 
opposite Matagorda to look after his cattle. I pressed his 
horse into my service to cany me as far as the mouth of 
Oany creek, which I crossed on horseback, it being fordable. 
I would not ask the loan of it to take me three miles further, 
to my hprnCi and as he did not offer, I walked all the way in 
the hot sun, the first week in July, having been absent since 
the first of April. The path was overgrown with wire-grass, 
pointing towards me at every step. I think it was the same 
evening, after I arrived, who should make his appearance 
but the friend that I had left at Galveston with the girls. The 
expected steamboat from the Sabine had brought all our 
friends who had stopped at Galveston and with whom I had 
left the girls and my colored folks. I was intending to send 
my man the fiext morning to return the borrowed horse to 
Velasco, but now we started him off with cart, oxen and 
horses to meet our friends. It was late when he arrived on 
the west side of the Bernard, where we left our raft, still fast. 
The next morning our friends found cart, oxen and riding 
horses, and even the man, Henry, and a raft ready for them ; 
but Henry continued on to Velp^sco, to return the borrowed 
horse. The ladies had to take turns about riding ; for two 
horses could not carry the party. So at last our sufferings 
and suspense were over. We only had to take our time to 
hunt up the goods we had hid away when we left. Some one, 
perhaps runaway negroes, had taken mattresses and used 
them in the woods and left them. Hot skillet-legs had been 
used on the top of a mahogany bureau, and, as the goods, iu 


the harry of our departure, had been dispersed and hidden 
by different persons, we foand only a portion^ especially our 
crockery, which we had hidden in the waters of Cany creek. 
A valuable mahogany second-hand medicine chest, which was 
bought second-hand for $60, with medicine books, medicine, 
etc., was buried, with valuable papers. The papers were all 
safe, but the external appearance of the medtcine-chest was 
spoiled ; but the gilt and drawers were still ornamental when 
opened. But all this was nothing ; we were saved and our 
country was saved. Our fences were torn down, and hogs 
and cattle had destroyed the corn that had been planted in 
March, and the hundred bushel potato pile had completely dis- 
appeared. My husband had credit but no money, for I had 
it all. He went to Matagorda, where the merchants replen- 
ished their larders, in the item of provisions, from New Or- 
leans. He supplied our neighbors with breadstuffs — the very 
ones that refused to lend a hand to make our raft in our re- 
treat. Our cattle and hogs were all there ; our creek full of 
fish ; and we had not suffered from hunger in all our flight. 
One thing peculiar to early Texas was that the females were 
in sympathy with all state affairs. They had no time or op- 
portunity to think or care for the last fashions or discuss the 
merits of the latest improvements in cooking. Common and 
necessary sense was the everyday business of the day, and 
no stranger was ever turned away or allowed to hunger. All 
entertainments were without money and without price. Sel- 
dom did the traveler go armed. I know that my husband never 
carried any weapon larger than a pocket-knife ; a pistol was 
never in the house. A good rifle was generally on hand to 
shoot the squirrels, so as to protect the growing crops, or to 
shoot down a beef, when necessary for our own u^e. We 
always slept with the outside doors open, even when scores 
of Carankawa Indians were within call. This after many 
years, however. 

In these Scraps I hope to tell of our flrst arrival in Texas, 
January 27th, 1829, Here I would remark that our fellow- 
traveler, in the Texas Scrap BooJcj has forgotten dates. He 
says that we ate our Christmas dinner on board of our vessel 


as she lay alongside the site of our new city of the large ware- 
house, prepared for the reception of the sixty new colonists, 
and two or three other log cabins. On the contrary, I shall 
never forget promenading the streets of New Orleans on the 
25th of December, when the negroes, in their Sunday finery, 
were the only people in sight — it was the great day with them.. 
They were free till January 1st. On that day, 1829, we were 
becalmed and lay rolling in the waters of the Oulf of Mexico, 
and so warm that one of our young ladies had her neck blis- 
tered in the sun. Whoever that has read Baker's Texas 
Scrap BobJc will remember Mr. Pilgrim's story of the first 
Sunday-school in Texas. He tells many things I had for- 
gotten and dangers I never knew anything about, because, I 
suppose, it was thought best not to alarm us. And, in his 
story, he does not mention that our vessel sprang a leak and 
the pump gave out, and that, when the vessel was overhauled 
for repairs, it was discovered that the anchor had made a 
hole in the bow, and that the hole was filled with seaweed, 
which accounted for the sudden stoppage of the water when 
the pumps gave out. I had forgott-en about the sufferings 
of himself and three or four others in walking to the first 
settlement. There being a scarcity of horses at Matagorda, 
we thought that twenty-five or thirty miles would only be a 
recreation after such a long confinement. It was all brought 
to my remembrance when he tells of the three biscuits being 
casually put in the pockets of some of them. Not anticipat- 
ing the journey, no preparation had been . made, and the 
weather being warm, we did not expect any suffering ; but 
I remembered it all, after fifty years, when I read it. He 
says he writes after forty-five years. 




[These Chapters were written for the ClareDdon News, by the Aathor, in 1878.] 


Fifty years ago the writer had the pleasure of a visit in the 
State of Kew York, from her old teacher who had been ab- 
sent in the far west six years ; the last three in Texas as 
surveyor for Austin and De Witt's Colony. Six years is a 
long time in the life of a school girl, not realizing that cupid 
would dare interfere to add to, or detract from the pleasure 
of the visit which was anticipated with the most ardent 
longings, merely to see again and hear the recitals of his 
travels from the man I had revered as my senior in years and 
knowledge, in fact in all things good, as I had always fancied 
when I was his pupil. Not for a moment imagining that I 
should breathe the prayer ^Hhat Heaven had made me such a 
man ;" but so it was. I had changed in six years ; he was more 
than my old teacher now. I had hoped only to see ray old 
teacher who would commend all my advancements in^^ book 
lore." I was no longer the girl of twelve years; I admired 
a something more than my old teacher. He had improved in 
knowledge, in his manners. His very voice wfi>B all in all to 
me ; but he, of course, knew not the change in my feelings, 
and BO I made free to encourage him to tell his strange exper- 
ience of wild life; days without food — at best, living by the 
good luck of the hunter on wild game ; meandering crooked 
rivers preparatory to laying them off in leagues ; perhaps 
one hundred miles from the nearest white settlement ; or his 
story of interviewing a Mexican trader to get the course and 
distance to certain points, for material for Austin's map of 
Texas ; or his danger of high water, or wild beast, or poison 


Yiper; or his story of a verbal bargam with a few military 
men who would be* on band near the mouth of the Golorad6 
riVer, where he hiad laid off a fatnre city, when he Bfaonld ref- 
torn the next year with a colony to protect them from can- 
nibal Indians ; and the story of sending a military company 
to protect hiffl and his stirveying party, as they passed down 
toward the cOast tbtdii^ the coantry (a suspicion being rife 
that they were going to unearth gold buried by Lafitte the 
Galveston pirate), so a«rthey went the company increased, and 
the eyes of white men saw Matt^gbrda in 1827 for the' first 
time^ when it was surveyed by B. B.*Wightman. Colonel 
Austin had sectired the location, and become a partner in the 
league and city. While the laws of Mexico forbade granting 
lands to settlers within th^ree leagues of the coaisft, lest indi- 
viduals should monop61i«:e town sites, yet Colonel Austin 
gained in a petition to the Oovernor, that it was necessary to 
keep up a military post to protect emigrants landing from 
sea, as the consideration for this exception to the rule and 
law. So without havingthe benefit of mails to know that 
the military condition had been complied with, fifty persons 
were landed early in 1829,) afte^ a route of thtee ' mohths, 
already* told i» tl»e^ ^'Textts Setsip Bo^.'' la my next I will 
tell of wtAfH-ot tb^'dai^rtl of 0^1^ voyage^ our gdihg ovi^r a 
miU^ dMV ofll tb« AllegUasfy Bitf^t) of ^r IMky Bchboh^r ; of 
stresBof weather '^of'b^itogC't^ptiatedly' blown otit tb seal when 
ourport was^in slg^t, andyfitfifll^, ruHhihg' bMbre^ the wind 
inio the Bay'4>f<Arli.Mfis ; of olip vi^itil«l6^ byhostflcf^Udians^ 
wfailafthe men^ ami* ^ns we^e all' gdiiC' to "suthmnd deer ; of 
our great soate ( of our intehSfcai^xiety'to kndw if we should 
find pr^tetstieiik at our 'hat^ ; of '■ the abs^fi^e of our boat, aisr 
we lay at anchor f<mr miMs distant, in Matl^rda Bifty; fearing 
our military might not be there, and feaiing' that the Indians 
might capture the boat, and leave us without means of com- 
munication with the land for water or anything else. Six 
hours of terrible suspense were relieved by seeing^ two boats 
in the distance. The sad story of our sufferings had been 
told and relief was approaching. 
It wottld take a whole chapter to describe the surround- 


iugs of our new borne, a large shelter fifty feet square with- 
out a plank or nail. Fortunately we found horses to carry 
messages to the settlements, the nearest being thirty miles 
distant. There were said to be three hundred familes in the 
whole country, every man knew each other and scores trav- 
eled long journeys to visit us, and prepare homes on land 
which they would give to those who would settle near them, 
but many came to spead the summer for their health and 
built a log school house. At no time were we without large 
herds of deer in sight in every direction, fish and fowl in the 
greatest abundance, eggs on the islands and in the bay, could 
be gathered by the bushel, oysters without stint, of the 
largest size. Our Indian aod worse trQubles will be told in 
another chapter, as well as our shipwreck /ind fire at sea, 
and the retreat before the Mexican army, where more women 
and children found graves than soldiers. 



'^Blessings brighten as they take their flight." So Uiought 
I as I left .the scene of my childhood, bade adieu to my 
brothers and sisters and parents, left all that I had held dear 
in life, even the Protestant religion, to go beyond the bounds 
of my own country, beyond the reach of our own mails, to 
contribute to that boundless empire (yet in embryo) hemmed 
in by savages, and almost unknown. But ^'Love moves the 
world," and love was the inspiring agent, when on November 
2d, 1828, a young bride, I joined a party who, in mud wagons, 
through foul weather, traveled some eighty miles to Olean 
Point, the head of navigation on the Alleghany river, to meet 
a colony of fifty immigrants bound for Texas. 

My first chapter introduced to the reader my husband, 
Ellas B. Wightman, who together with David O. Burnet, had 
left Texas early in the year on a mission to the States to 
drum immigrants for Austin's Golony. Having reached Gin- 
cinnati, he halted waiting for warmer weather to go farther 
north, and spent his leisure time in making a draft of the first 



map of Texas, from field notes which he. had obtained from 
actnal surveys and from travelers and traders. He had spent 
the three previous years in collecting this data, and also in 
writing a history of all the contracts made by the Mexican 
government with Austin, together with a digest of all the 
Mexican laws that concerned immigrants. 

At Olean Point we found waiting for us two large flat boats, 
some twenty feet long by twelve wide, each boat having one 
end square or perpendicular, thus fitted to be lashed together 
by boards being nailed on the outside. The sixth day found 
us on the north shore of the Alleghany river in an Indian 
village, cold and wet. Here we remained over the Sabbath. 
The Indians seemed to commiserate our discomfort, and of- 
fered us the use of a good log hut in which they had spread 
pea vines, but which they said could be gathered in a corner, 
and we be made comfortable before a large fireplace, itkej in 
the meantime preferring to live in their tents. Here we took 
in a pilot to guide us to Pittsburg, who professed to know all 
about the river and its dangers. £re long, a loud, roaring 
noise was heard, but we depended on our pilot, and when too 
late saw that we were being drawn over a mill dam several 
feet high, while near the bank a becure pass way was left for 
boats. I was in the back end of the forward boat, and as 
we descended, my corner broke loose Irom its £ei»stening, at 
the same time nearly filled with water. The hind boat being 
separated and slightly held by one corner, did not float away 
from us, but enabled the men to reach out and hold up the 
forward boat just as it appeared to be sinking. Now all 
hands went to bailing; vessels for those who had none; 
some resorted to the hats from their heads ; anything to get 
the water out. As my corner parted a little from the other 
boat, I found I had been bailing between the boats. It was 
doubtful, for some time, which boat would go under first, but 
by balancing and holding each other up, and industriously 
working, we managed to get all the water out. The weather 
having moderated, we did not stop at once but fioated on 
until a pile of lumber invited us to camp for the night. Here 
we found comfortable quarters, dried our clothes by large 


wood fires, and cooked provisions for the next day. Another 
night found ns in another clel^n board camp. We saw rery 
few improvements along the river till We came near Pitts- 
burg, only piles of lumber waiting to be rafted down. One 
of these rafts we overtook and were offered a free passage 
to Pittsburg, if the hands would assist in the passage down; 
this was very slow traveling, but very comfortable, clean 
and warm, with board roof and place for fire, thus were we 
sheltered in our first snow storm. At Pittsburg we took a 
steamboat for Louisville. The canal around the falls of the 
Ohio^ had not yet been made, and we had to cart our goods 
round to Shippingport, and then wait three weeks before a 
boat could be procured bound for New Orleans. And now 
we made southward so fast that the transition from ice and 
snow, was so sudden as to excite our admiration, soon large 
hedges of roses could be seen from the boat banging over 
the enclosure of fields. 

Our boat was one made especially for immigrants, large 
berths arranged around the whole aft of the upper cabin, with 
large cooks tove and galley, the latter being used also by some 
negro staveii^ on theii^ way to If ew Orleans to be sold. I had 
been taught in my schooldays to pity them, but those were 
the first I hM ever seen. I often met them at the cook stove 
and catechised theni^for the purpose of getting ' the history 
of horrofS which was visibly imprinted on the tablets of my 
memory: "Werejthey pleased with the idea of going to 
New Orleans^ "0,Jyes, Missus, dey tell me it am a mighty 
good place for de culled folks." And, to my astonishment, a 
happier set of people, to all appearances, I never saw. Sing- 
ing and dancing seemed to occupy all the hours which nature 
had intended to rest the weary body; still they went as 
cheerful to the wash-tub the next morning, where, they told 
me, they earned a considerable amount of pocket money, for 
their own use, by washing for passengers and hands on the 
boat. And such perfect washing I had never seen before, 
and with such muddy water — clothes as white as snow itself 
and beautifully ironed. 

Our long delays proved a blessing to us, for we found that 


the yellow fever had only ceased a few days before our ar- 
rival, about the 10th of^December, 1828. Here we waited 
two weeks before we could find a vessel willing to go to 
Texas. At last the owner of a small schooner of twenty-two 
tons, from Maine, offered to sell us the vessel for five hundred 
dollars^ or charter and sail it there for the same price. We 
accepted the latter offer, and on the 26th of December, 1828, 
we floated down from New Orleans. Our perils on the Gulf 
in a voyage of thirty days, with short rations, bad water and 
only seven days' cooked food, will be told in another chapter. 


Having left snow and ice behind, we find all things fresh 
in New Orleans a few days before Christmas, 1828. On that 
day the streets of the city were thronged with slaves, who 
were free until January 1st, 1829. I noticed no white women 
on the streets, but the negroes in crowds monopolized all the 
avenues, clothed in richest and gayest apparel. I never at 
one time had seen so many nice dresses, and was told they 
were the cast-off dresses of their owners of the previous year, 
and that quite a rivalry existed as to whose slaves should be 
best dressed during the Christmas holidays. The men 
equalled, if they did not excel the women, in their shining 
broadcloth and stovepipe hats, and as I listened to their 
pleasant salutations and jovial conversation, I changed my 
opinion in regard to the condition of the down-trodden slave. 
It all seemed like a fairy dream to me, being surrounded by 
this strange race in a country where all nature was clothed 
in summer attire — roses everywhere, with an endless variety 
of other flowers, and fruits brought from a tropical climate 
and seen now for the first time. I very much enjoyed watch- 
ing the negroes, and studying their doings and feelings. In 
the markets both the buyers and sellers were mostly of this 
class and their gossip was very interesting to me. 

The day after Christmas we were ready to begin our voy- 
age, and, taking on sixty passengers, the schooner Little Zoe, 



Oaptain Alden, of Maine, commandiDg, began to float down 
the river in the fog. Oar other officers were John McHenn, 
mate, and a Oerman sailor. Oar Baptist missionary, Thos. 
J. Pilgrim, late from his studies, alone, of all the passengers, 
knew how to work a vessel, and this proved the means oi 
oar flnal safety, as I now learn from his story in the Texai 
JScrap Boolcj written by him after a lapse of forty-five years. 
I, writing after fifty years, remember some things he forgot, 
especially dates. He says we ate oar Christmas dinner on 
board the schooner on the Colorado river^ bat I can never 
forget the scenes on the street in l^ew Orleans on that day, 
as described above. My joarnal says we landed in Matagorda 
January 27th, 1829. 

On the first day of January, while rolling about in a calm 
on the Gulf of Mexico, and trying to amuse ourselves by 
having a concert with, many fine singers, one of our young 
ladies had her neck blistered in the hot sun. Our provisions 
and fresh water were being fast exhausted, and many of our 
number were sick, some seasick, others with fever contracted 
in New Orleans, and all impatient for home comforts. When 
it became necessary to put us on an allowance of half a pint 
of water per day, it was real suffering to many. For myself, 
I was sick, and loathed the water from the fiist, and only 
drank a little with sugar and vinegar. My husband felt his 
responsibility and did all in his power to cheer our drooping 
spirits and make us comfortable. Most of the winds were 
'exactly ahead of our desired course, and after a long calm (in 
which we rolled most unpleasantly), we were sure to be 
greeted by a norther, which would make us lose more in a 
few hours than we had gained in days ; so that when ap- 
proaching the coast, though at a great distance, if within 
soundings, would cast anchor till the blast was over, gener- 
ally the third day. Many times when our port was in sight 
we would fall to the leeward, and it would be impossible to 
beat up to it before another norther would strike us. Mr. 
Pilgrim does not mention the fact that our vessel sprung a 
leak. All at once our little cabin floor was flooded, and then 
the few whose home was in that locality worked with a will 
to bail and hand up buckets of water, while the pumps never 

.1 ..■ 


ceased for twenty-four hoars. Finally the pamp broke, and 
while it was being repaired, some of the bailing party re- 
moved some freight, to better reach. the water i|i the hold of 
the vessel, when the water seemed to cease and a bnnch of 
«eaweed was discovered filling the hole which had been made 
by drawing up the anchor. 

My second chapter in this series tells of the gale of wind 
which drove us thirty miles west while we were vainly striv- 
ing to beat up Matagorda Pass, and of our adventure with 
hostile Indians while all the men and guns were gone to sur- 
round deer. I never knew, till since reading Mr. Pilgrim's 
account, of the great peril of our situation as we again at- 
tempted the dangers of the ocean between the ports, I never 
knew before that the Captain and sailors were the worse for 
whisky. I knew that we made use of long sweeps to row the 
vessel into Matagorda Pass, bht did not know that we were 
in danger of being cast ashore by the swell of the sea, with- 
out any wind to get away from the shore, among hostile In- 
dians, one hundred miles from any white settlers. Hence, at 
the advice of Mr. Pilgrim, these long sweeps were used to 
keep us from the impending peril, though passengers, all un- 
aware of any danger, thought it was simply to expedite our 
Bpeed. The Captain was asleep and Mr. Pilgrim at the helm 
when the wind died away. Kone knew the channel, and the 
mate and Mr. Pilgrim took our only boat, found the channel, 
and towed us into port on Sunday, January 27th, 1829, where 
we bad great rejoicing. Having been six days in Aransas 
harbor, where we had recruited and renovated our sea soiled 
garments, and by digging a few feet found a good supply of 
fresh water — with fish and fowl, and plenty of fresh oysters, 
we now felt quite refreshed. So that when we made this sail 
of forty miles up the bay, notwithstanding hostile Indian 
•smokes telegraphed our approach, we felt comparatively 
happy over our creature comforts. 


• ' ♦. 


Prior to the arrival of the sixty immigrants brought by E. 
R. Wightman, for Colonel Austin, in 1828-29, when Colonel 
Austin began to colonize his first three hundred according to 
contract — the Carankawa'Indians inhabited the whole of the 
sea coast. They were reputed .to be cannibals and very fero- 
tious, hence, probably the ^Spaniards, believing every ficti- 
cious rumor, were but little disposed without a strong mili- 
tary force, to invade those tribes or gain any reliable infor- 
mation regarding the coast. 

The first sttlers of Austin's contract arrived in considera- 
ble force on the coast and were well armed. The Indians 
were sufficiently peaceable^as long as the settlers remained 
together, only begging or stealing as*the occasion permitted ; 
but when they separated to explore the country or to select 
eligible locations, four of their number, who were left to 
guard the camp, were killed and their goods and provisions 
carried off; while at other places where settlements had been 
commenced, the Indians lay in wait till the men would leave 
the house, and massacre^ whole families of women and chil- 
dren. On one occasion only one child was found alive with 
an arrow fast in its body. Thus hostilities commenced. The 
colonists were not strong enough at this period to retaliate, 
being unaided by a single government soldier, and so were 
compelled to submit to the insolence they could not resent. 
These vexations were endured for several years, when tlte 
number of the colonists having greatly increased, they mus- 
tered a party of sixty riflemen to punish them for gome re- 
cent murders. Colonel Austin commanded this expedition 
in person — the result being the slaughter'of half the tribe. 
The remainder took refuge in the^ church of the Mexican 
mission of La Bahia (Goliad). The priests were ordered to 
turn them out on pain of having the sanctuary violated. 
But after much entreaty!^ by the priests^and the Alcalde, the 
civil magistrate, a truce was granted tkem on the condition 



that they should never again cross the Lavaca river, the 
western boundary of Austin's Colony. This agreement they 
kept till driven off by the Mexicans for crimes committed 

And this was the state of affairs when stress of vreather 
drove the "Little Zoe," a schooner of twenty tons burden, 
chartered in New Orleans, Christmas day, 1828, by E, R. 
Wightman, laden with sixty immigrants bound for the future 
■city of Matagorda. 

Only a verbal agreement had been made with Colonel 
Austin the year before, that he should meet us with a few 
armed men to protect our landing and aid us in commencing 
a town thirty miles from the nearest settlement. 

Our little schooner was a bad sailor — time and again we 
made the pass, but would always fall to the leeward, and the 
vessel could not beat up against the wind ; then a severe 
norther would strike us, and for fear of being blown off to 
sea in our frail craft, on short water and uncooked food, and 
in our crowded condition with many sick, we would cast 
anchor till the blast was over. Then perhaps a dead calm 
would ensue for several days, and now the vessel springs a 
leak; all hands to bailing; the pump will not relieve her; 
the anchor broke a hole in the bow. But just as the pump 
gave out a bunch of seaweed filled the hole, as was discov- 
ered when the vessel was repaired, so 

*'There is a Providence that siiapes our ends, 
Rough hew them as we may." 

Finally, when about to make our harbor— when in sight of 
it — a most violent storm, a hurricane rather, struck us, and 
we had no choice but to run before the wind for thirty miles 
to the Aransas Pass, which we did in some thirty minutes, 
Wintering it in safety. And so rejoiced were we to escape the 
ocean, and to be freed from our prison, and to have the luxu- 
ry of oysters, fish and fowl, as well as to renovate our sea 
soiled garments in good soft water, that the thought of the 
hostile Indians never occurred to us. So on seeing some 
large droves of deer, it was suggested that all turn out and 
surround them, of course taking all the firearms with them. 
There were left on board the Captain, mate and one sailor. 


our whole sailing crew, one old gentleman, and Bev. T. J» 
Pilgrim, our Baptist Missionary, late from his theological 
school, and one colored man. One old musket, not supposed 
to be of any use, was our only weapon of defense. All tho 
women and children were on shore a hundred yards from the 
vessel, and all our hunters out of sight, when suddenly there 
appeared two large canoes crowded with Indians, making 
straight for our vessel. 


Human nature is the same in all countries. Love of ad- 
venture; love of money-making; love of hair-breadth 
escapes ; planted in man for wise purposes, have indirectly 
been the means of revolutionizing and civilizing nations, of 
planting the germs of future homes for our fellow-beings in 
happiness and prosperity. The ancients used to say, "The 
mills of the gods grind slow." We say the Almighty works 
by means, and "makes the wrath of man to praise him.'^ 
This love of adventure and love of gain^ however unlawful,, 
has periled many a life in the contraband trade with the 
Mexicans, when the cultivation and trade in tobacco was a 
government monopoly. If the daring adventurer was suc- 
cessful he made a fortune ; but woe to him if detected in the 
business. His greatest danger was from the hostile Indians^ 
who found unbounded range on the western coasts of the 
Oulf, for plundering these trading vessels driven thither 
by stress of weather or want of water. Indeed the casea 
were rare that a small trading vessel tempted to these coasts 
ever escaped to tell the story of their peril. Enough, how- 
ever, was known to cause fright among our vessel's crew at 
sight of canoes filled with Indians mentioned in my last. We 
innocent passengers felt no particular fear, never having 
heard of the hostilities and we did not credit the belief that 
human beings would, in cold blood, take our lives without 



provocation ; bat I afterwards learned that the Indians had 
a superstition that the great spirit sent these vessels for 
their benefit, hence they learned to love whisky and tobacco. 
The Captain lost no time in dispatching the colored man 
for oar hnnters, now oat of sight and miles away. Oar old 
masket — oar only weapon — was hnnted ap and pat in order* 
Meantime oar little skiff, holding three or fonr persons, wa» 
trying to bring on board all the women and children from 
the shore, depending on the old musket to keep the Indians 
from coming too near.. But we had not time; the Indians 
neared the schooner, and the musket was fired to frighten 
them off. This, however, turned them toward the shore, 
which they reached just as the last load was about to enter 
the skiff. The Captain shook hands with them and invited 
them to the schooner. A conversation in broken Spanish 
ensued. They said they were friends — though only seven 
in number, they carried bows and arrows enough for a 
hundi:ed — they were told that we had forty soldiers on shore 
hunting. The Captain made a virtue of necessity, and asked 
them to dine, hoping the hunters would return by the time 
they had finished their meal. Meantime, the colored man 
got near enough to some of the hunting party to show his 
color, and they supposing him to be an Indian, passed the 
word from one to the other, and every one started in pursuit, 
each man carrying a gun, or in its absence something to rep- 
resent one ; and as they came running in single file, they 
made in the distance a very formidable appearance. Our 
visitors left us without throwing a single arrow, though a 
dozen could have been thrown before a gun could be. fired* 
But they valued their lives and thought they saw too many 
men, and before our men could get on board with our one 
small craft, every Indian bade us *'a good bye," and departeds 

Eight thankful were we, and lost no time in renewing our 
voyage to Matagorda Pass, which we entered Sunday' morn- 
ing of the last week in January, 1829. It was with great 
anxiety that we approached our haven. Should we meei 
friends or foes t should we be greeted by friends or des- 
troyed by hostile Indians! It was evident that we were 


watched ; we could see the signal smokcB — ^the Indian mode 
of telegraphing— all along the mainland, in passing np the 
Bay, where no vessel had ever been, except perhaps the pirate 
Lafitte, whose headquarters had been on Galveston Island. 

B. E. Wightman, who had surveyed Matagorda the year 
before, was now at the mast head all the way up the Bay, 
taking notes and bearings of the lands which had never 
been trod by feet of white men. Not having time to take 
soundings that night, we dropped anchor four miles off the 
coast opposite the mouth of the Colorado river, and late in 
the evening Mr. Wightman with .two men took their rifles 
and started in the skiff to explore and ascertain whether 
Colonel Austin had planted his military post with shelter tor 
our sick and sea-worn company. It was with sad hearts we 
saw them depart, not knowing but that Indians were lying 
in wait for them, and even before they landed might be shot 
by arrows from an unseen foe, and no means left us of ascer- 
taining their fate, for we had no other boat, and really no 
means of leaving the country, for our schooner was not sea- 
worthy. Language cannot describe our feelings when just 
before dark two boats came in sight ; our hoping and fearing 
till we found that they contained white men ; then our great 
joy at the assurance that we were really with friends. They 
brought good things for our sick. It was voted that I should 
have the honor of being the first white woman to ascend the 
mouth of the Colorado liver and return with the boats that 

After our city of Matagorda had grown to quite a size 
many of our settlers still refused to have any dealings with 
the Indians, who were now so reduced in numbers as not to 
be dangerous, yet when the Indians would come to those 
settled on farms around the town offering to trade venison 
for corn or articles of clothing, the people refused to have 
anything to do with them, or even to be friendly. 

Finally, an expedition was planned against them without 
Mr. Wightman's knowledge or consent, and the very day that 
I had fed a poor old Indian, covered with scars, he met his 
death at the hands of our settlers, who fell on them by sur- 


prise, and it Beerned that each warrior claimed the honor of 
his slaughter, as he stepped forward to be a target while the 
women and children could have time to escape to the thicket. 
Of course all their goods and weapons fell into the hands of 
their conquerors. 

After a few years a small party, evidently remembering 
who had fed them on.the day of the fight, came to us. My 
husband became responsible for their good behavior, and 
set them to picking cotton, but before this they dared not 
venture into the town, only when they saw our boat coming 
down the Bay. There were no white settlements on the 
Peninsula, and the Indians had it all their own> way there, 
but they were evidently afraid of another attack and so came 
and offered to work for us for protection. 

I felt no tear whatever from these neighbors, but would 
sleep with all our doors open, with twenty-five or thirty In- 
dians within call. It was amusing to see them parade the 
streets of Matagorda with their long plaid, red, blue, gar- 
ments, which I had made for them, the tails tipped with or- 
namental feathers. One of the young women learned to 
speak very good English ; I dressed her in my clothes, and 
one day thought to have some fun with her, invited her to 
take tea with me. But the joke all turned to my own ex- 
pense, for she not only used her knife and fork properly but 
her cup, saucer and plate like it was an every day affair. I 
asked her how they made out when our folks drove them off 
without anything. She answered that they traveled for days 
withou't? food and no place to sleep, as the ground was all 
covered with water — which I recollected was the case. They 
had no means of fishing, but they kept close to the coast and 
at last the "Great Spirit'' sent them a small vessel, after kill- 
ing the crew they appropriated everything to their own use, 
and thus their lives were saved. 

After a while they frequently had noisy nights, and upon 
enquiring what all this noise and dancing meant, with so many 
rude instruments of music, she replied that they were going 
west, as they had better health than with our way of living, 
and they were importuning the Oreat Spirit to give them 
success in stealing horses and other stock from the Mexicans 


who lived near the coast ; and to protect them from hostile 
attacks. It took me a long time to become accastomed to 
their naked and hideous appearance, so that it did not shock 
me ; I felt hamiliated that I too was, of the haman species. 

Their habits were idle and dirty in the extreme, but for 
their constant bathing in the river. The children almost 
lived in the water, would dive and bring up clams, etc., 
sometimes fighting in the water. The men would tread the 
water with heavy burdens on their shoulders walking erect 
with half their bodies dry. Our mode of living made them 
sickly and they were obliged often to resort to the coast. On 
one occasion a young wife ran off and the distressed husband 
applied to my husband to turn out with his skiff and help 
find her. They went up the river a few miles and found her 
at her mother's camp. She made a virtue of necessity and 
returned. To express his gratitude the happy husband of- 
fered to reciprocate the favor "whenever his squaw ran off.'^ 

Their few cooking utensils are made of a rude kind of 
pottery. Their drinking vessel is about ten inches wide at 
the top, coming to a point at the bottom. This is handed 
round for each one to take a swallow after the head man has 
worked it into a foam by a bunch of small stickg whirled 
with both hands ; this serves them for their coffee cup and 
when all have drank the process is repeated, taking hours at 
a time at least twice a day. They also parch in this vessel 
their coffee — the leaves of an evergreen shrub resembling 
our garden privet. Their coffee pot in which it is boiled is 
of the same material, shaped like a double necked gourd, 
while a bunch of Spanish moss serves for a lid and a strainer. 

When one of them dies his effects and his hut are burned 

the same day, and a corpse is never kept over night. When 

a chief dies the next heir to the throne, however young, 

marries the widow, however old. If he leaves no son after 

death, the nearest of kin, have periodical times of howling, 

generally before daylight. The women spend a great deal of 

time pounding a kind of root, on skins, which yields a kind 

of starch when washed and settled in water. Days will thus 
be spent in preparing what will be only a taste when divided 
among them. 


2— ac 


Alligator meat is a great luxury with them, aud although 
supplied bountifully with fresh meat, they would be absent 
frequently, and return with pieces of cooked alligator tied 
between large pieces of bark swung over their shoulders. I 
have seen them killed. The creature is helpless when under 
the waticr and the Indians dive and stick him with a sharp 

They knew we did not approve of their stealing horses 
from the Mexicans and so when they left, they went on the 
sly. We got up one morning and found them all gone, and 
we saw no more of them for years. 

In 1843, 1 spent some time in Matagorda when they made 
their appearance in a most wretched, filthy condition, few in 
numbers, offering to trade fish for whisky. The young girl 
I had helped was dying. She formally gave away her- only 
child to a white woman and the whole tribe formed a proces- 
sion to go and deliver the child before the.mother's death. I 
afterwards visited the child and found her at a little table 
with a white and a negro child, each about four years old, 
playing tea drinking, all speaking English together. On one 
occasion that summer, a stroke of lightning killed a man and 
his wife, but a child between them escaped unharmed, this 
made a profound impression upon the whole tribe. They felt 
it as a direct judgment from the Oreat Spirit for their 
drunkenness and bad behavior, and for days they scarcely 
moved or left the camp. As I left the country in 1843, 1 
ceased to know more of these Indians. I believe that Mexico 
gave them a tract of land in one of her Eastern Provinces. 


At our new home everything seemed strange. We had 
never before traveled south of latitude of 42°. At that time 
very liitle traveling was done ; the very literature of common 
school books was borrowed from selections from the eminent 
lights of the old world. Western New York was quite a 
frontier, Indians being a fixture there, as also in Ohio and 


The coast States, of course, had the advantage of direct 
intercourse with the old world, but the interior towns of 
all the States were so isolated that it took courage and a 
large stock of enterprise to make this colonization. The 
contrast of the idioms of language was most marked. Often 
when critically compared, the advantage would be in favor 
of the untutored southerner, and their unassuming, free-and- 
<3asy, benevolent manners were most admirable. We did 
not expect such perfect Chesterfields in the garb of deerskin 
and mocassins, and such unselfish benevolence. All knowl- 
edge seemed practical, useful and fitted to any emergency, 
especially in children, which seemed so strange. They tread 
in the ways and manners of their elders without a rebuke, as 
with us, if we, when children, should presume to give our 
opiniou to our elders ; but I saw its advantages when the6e 
precocious youths were sent on a message of fifty or a hun- 
dred miles alone through unsettled regions where he was 
obliged to assume the manhood he had been practicing from 
almost his infancy — for the very infant is expected to be in- 
troduced to every stranger and to give his little hand to 
everyone coming or leaving, thus cultivating habits of social 
and benevolent feeling, while we northerners treat children 
as nonentities, and, unless business or necessity compels, the 
bashful youth, in consequence, shirks the society of his elders 
and superiors. 

And then I could but notice that every boy was almost a 
knight errant. I noticed great deference paid to all the fe- 
males ; no man would remain sitting when one of us entered 
the house, fort or camp, and thus it was everywhere as we 
traveled or camped out. All the severe work on such occa- 
sions was done by the men of the company. 

Flowers seemed to be the sport of the luxurious soil, in- 
stead of noxious weeds, which in other regions are ever ready 
without the aid of man to cover up its nakedness with the 
rich and variegated livery of nature. A continued and con- 
tinuing variety carpeted our way for whole days together as 
we traveled, with scare a sign of a former traveler to mark 
the path. While large herds of deer in easy distance would 


stop grazing to look at us, and every way wl^ich the eye 
looked countless herds were seen in the distance. Many of 
these journeys, which so delighted me with their novelty and 
variety, were for the purpose of surveying to v^n sites. As 
my husband was the founder of the city of Matagorda, all 
paper town-makers made an effort to have him interested iu 
such enterprises. Hence, my long journeys through unset- 
tled regions to reach those sites for future cities, when we 
frequently fell in with large pleasure parties, who, like our- 
selves, had made long journeys from remote towns. On one 
occasion we rescued a young orphan girl from being married 
against her will, and gave her a home with us, at the head 
of the bay, forty miles distant. Another good subject for 
my story, without exaggeration, was when scores turned out 
to meet the Eomans at given points to legalize the banns 
of matrimony. 


The first night's lodging in Texas was iu our military post^ 
built according to agreement in 1827 or 1828, between Colo- 
nel Stephen F. Austin and Elias E. Wightmau, to protect 
immigrants landing from the sea, from hostile and cannibal 
Indians. All immigrants heretofore having landed at the 
mouth of the Brazos. History gives no mention of any 
landing here, but at the mouth of the Lavaca river, west of 
the Colorado, first of a French explorer in 1687 — La Salle — 
and some time after of a Spanish explorer, jealous of the 
French, and finally the Catholic mission, San Francisco, near 
the mouth of the Lavaca river. 

We found housed in this fort Hon. James Cummings, aged 
sixty, his widowed daughter, Mrs. Maria Eoss and little 
daughter Bessy, aged four years, the only child of the place^ 
old Mrs. Parker, the grandmother of Mrs. Willbarger, whose 
husband was scalped in 1834 — and lived twelve years after — 
by the Indians in the northern frontier country. Our mili- 
tary — James Cook, Daniel Deckrow, Andrew Jackson, and a 
Kentucky youth, six feet high, named Helm, and some half 
dozen others. 


Mt. Oammings had a good log-hoase nearly finished, where 
all went to give room to our sixty immigrants. Mr. Jesse 
Barham also had a log cabin on the Bay side of thetown, 
who took possession in a few weeks with his large family of 
yoang children. A school-house of logs and dirt floor was 
also erected that winter, and a house for the teacher, Mr. 
Willbarger. As no vessel had ever before entered the port 
great was the excitement in accomplishing that feat. The 
soundings of the channel had to be made so that it could not 
be done at once, and our friends on land sent out our poor 
weary and worn immigrants a sumptuous dinner on board 
the vessel — long before she made her appearance in port — 
of boiled hominy, pounded in a morter, cooked . meats of 
various kinds, also a variety of fish and fowl, and a large 
bucket of sweet milk and some sweet potatoes, the first they 
ever saw, bread minus, for the corn only produced a small 
fraction of meal, when the hominy was pounded by a contriv- 
ance like an old-fashioned well sweep. We had on board plenty 
of flour which we had no way of cooking, also groceries, 
portions ol which we returned to our generous donors, and 
I will state in passing, that requests often came with visi- 
tors from a distance for small portions of flour to show their 
friends who had never seen wheat flour. Our sixty starving 
sea- worn passengers were thus welcomed to their long sought 
for post, after an absence of thirty-one days from New Or- 
leans, of storms and head winds, leaky vessel, bad water 
dealt c»ut at half-pint in every twenty-four hours for the last 
few days before being driven into Aransas Bay, where we 
remained about one week, where we had the scare of cannibal 
Indians, while the men and arms were absent to surround 
deer. So that by the time our veasel was ready to unload 
passengers, our fort was vacated. I shall ever remember 
the kindness of its late inmates, they seemed to vie with 
each other in giving material aid in flsh, fowl and venison — 
deer being in droves of hundreds in every direction which 
had not yet learned to fear man, but would approach him if 
he would sit down to see what he looked like, and thus 
come within gunshot. Our friends also had plenty of cows 

. •**.". ■• ■ ■: 

r u 


and thus we had the long coveted milk I had dreamed so 
much aboat, when starving at sea. And this kindness con- 
tmoed to all the company, and to ns after they all left, which 
was in the early spring. Immigrants were soaght after by 
farmers for eighty miles distant to work for half the crop and 
everything fonnd, till they should have time to locate on 
their own land, and thus we parted. Other vessels soon 
visited our port, loaded with immigrants and houses ready 
to be put up. 

We remained about two and a half years h6re, while I 
taught both week-day and Sunday school, while my husband 
was absent a good part of the time surveying on both sides 
of the Colorado and on the San Jacinto, the very battle 
ground I still have a plat of. My Sunday school was^ the 
first and only one south of where Mr. Pilgrim, our fellow- 
sufferer, established both week and Sunday school, who 
also wrote the story of our sufferings after the lapse of 
forty-five years, in the Texas Scrap Book. 

For the want of material to build, as our fort let in much 
water in hard storms, we erected a sort of tent and covered 
it with long grass for a place to sleep, and the next move, 
was to tear down the fort, and build a smaller room to shut 
out the weather and rain. At last, an opportunity was of- 
fered to trade an order of five cows and calves for hewed 
logs sixteen feet long to build one room ; we added a side 
porch and floored it with puncheon high and dry from the 
ground, and a shed kitchen from the leavings of the old fort; 
we had now lived one year on the ground floor, all this time 
the cooking was done in the open air, with the wind blowing 
a gale. The order of one cow and calf had by custom be- 
come a circulating medium for $10, hence the order for five 
cows and calves for these logs. Our relatives had all gone 
up the country, except the parents of my husband, B. E. 
Wightman, now more than seventy years of age. On June 
20th, his mother died of fever ; in six weeks after his father 
also died ; those were the first graves in Matagorda ceme- 
tery — ^a mesquite tree marks the spot. A quantity of plank 
was thougtfuUy taken on board at l^ew Orleans on purpose 


for coffins, though no one knew the motive. Daniel Deck- 
row made both coffins ; a yoke of oxen and a cart did the 
office of a hearse; kind friends dug the graves. No physi- 
cian. No religious service soothed the lonely survivors, but 
all that sympathizing friends could do to soften the melan- 
choly surroundings was done. 


In a large country like Texas, where there were no mails, 
there must necessarily be a great deal of unwritten history. 
The Mexicans when they essayed to throw oflf the Spatiish 
yoke, were a semi-barbarous people, and having always been 
under tyranny, they only studied self-interest. They invited 
colonies of Anglo Americans to settle the boundless waste of 
territory between the Eio Grande and the Sabine as a pro- 
tection from hostile Indians. The few spots they had them- 
selves occupied for ages, were hemmed in by savages who 
boasted that they only suffered the Mexicans to remain so as 
to raise horses and other stock for them. And so they made 
regular raids, and woe to the herdsman if he happened to be 
within reach of his lariat, for it would be thrown over his 
head and he be dragged to death. Ilence all congregated in 
fortified villages, and cultivated very limited spots in the 
the suburbs, not valuing lands only as a range for cattle, 
hence the large tracts offered to immigrants of one square 
league — 4444 acres — to each man with a family, and more to 
any American who would marry a Mexican ; and one-fourth 
of that quantity to a single man, the remainder to be added 
if he married. In making those offers they carefully coupled 
Texas with a State thickly settled by Mexicans, so as 
to keep the balance of power in the Mexican Congress in 
their hands. 

Colonel Austin, as the Texas representative, petitioned for 
a separate State, but was denied. He wrote home, and his 
letter was intercepted by government spies, and he was ar- 
rested and put in a dungeon, where he was kept a long time. 



In the meantime, no prayers of his colonists were of any 
avail ; neither had their sister republic a right to interfere or 
remonstrate. Our immigrant vessels were boarded and the 
passengers bound for Texas, although sailitig under the flag 
of the United States, were put in the hold of their dirty 
crafts, and kept there for days in warm weather, before land- 
ing at the mouth of the Brazos, where they could show that 
they were not citizens of Texas, but of the United States. 
[I find by reading the history of those times, that Mexico 
bound herself in large sums of money to remunerate the 
daijiages, and which was one of the causes that brought on 
the war of 1846-7. Others of course came in after Texas 
became one of the States of the Union.] 

The Mexicans had a post at the mouth of the Brazos river, 
where most of our immigrants were landed, under pretense 
of collecting duties, commanded by an American of the name 
of Bradburn. He evidently had sold himself to the Mexicans ; 
for he became very insolent and allowed his soldiers to get 
into quarrels with the civilians, and seized some of them and 
threatened to send them to Mexico for trial ; but our people 
insisted on having them tried by the civil authority at home, 
and made contrary threats of burning Brazoria, the principal 
town of the lower country. Thus stood matters when, in 
June^ 1832, we distinctly heard the sound of cannons for six 
or eight hours, we living twenty-five miles west, at the head 
of Matagorda Bay. We had heard of some citizens being in 
durance at the fort, and so were not at a loss to guess what 
the cannonade meant. The next day news came that the fort 
had been taken by a few hot-heads, and the whole country 
might be imperiled by the act. In this action one American 
was killed and seven wounded. There was said to be two 
hundred soldiers in the fort, of whom forty-two were killed, 
thirty wounded and the balance made prisoners. Our folks 
knew there was a revolution going on in Mexico, but did not 
know or care which side succeeded. 

The next day we saw from our window a fleet of four large 

vessels sailing up the coast towards the scene of battle. We 

trembled for the consequences ; still we knew these vessels 

had not had time to learn anything whatever about the battle, 




but expected vengeance from such an armament. Bnt it 
turned oat that this party belonged to the revolutionists and 
were victorious and had come to take this very fort from 
their opponents. Our men made a virtue of necessity and 
told them that they had taken the fort in their behalf, and so 
they were thanked and had many favors promised; among 
others that Colonel Austin should be set at liberty, which 
proved true, but his health was very much impaired from 
his long confinement. Still Americans from Texas continued 
to be persecuted. Some of the prisoners never returned. 
They had committed no crime — only because they were Tex- 
ans. The story of individual sufferings and adventures will 
be told in the next chapter. 


The usual time for sailing from Xew Orleans to Texas was 
seven days, so we only took provisions for sixty persons for 
seven days, and about the time that was consumed our water 
also became alarmingly scarce — half a pint a day to each per- 
son. Being sick, I could not drink the water, nor the tea 
and coffee made from it. A little vinegar and sugar, diluted 
with this bad water, sustained me. There were no conveni- 
ences for cooking, except a stationary sheet-iron boiler, so- 
called, in which we were allowed to heat water for our tea 
and coffee. Our Captain, one day, very kindly volunteered 
to make it full of vegetable soup for all the passengers, when 
we, or more especially the well ones, were nearly famished, 
and invited his sixty passengers to help themselves. And 
«uch a scrambling ! It would have made a picture for Har- 
per. Many could not procure vessels to get what they so 
much needed. It so happened that a small tincup fell to my 
lot 5 it was very small at the top and took a long time to cool. 
I had been nine days without food and but very little to 
drink, because I could not eat and drink such as the vessel 
afforded, and having a fever did not crave much. Now came 
the tug of war. Those who could procure large vessels took 
too much. By the time I had cooled and consumed my gill 


of soup the boiler was empty. Looking down the hatchway 
I saw a family of three with a six-quart pan full, and reach- 
ing down my cup, I requested them to fill it. They parleyed 
and said they could not spare any. I would not report, to 
make trouble for my friends ; but after I hjid retired in dis- 
gust they offered to fill my cup. I do not remember the 
sequel, only remember telling them of it years after, at which 
time, of courpe, they had forgotten the circumstance. After 
our cooked provisions had given out, crackers and hard sea 
bread sustained life ; but when the water gave out, then real 
suflfering commenced. And such water ! I really supposed 
then that powder casks had been used for holding the water, 
not having learned then that it took time for water to become 
good. The well passengers could drink it made into coffee, 
but it so affected me that I could not endure the smell of 
coffee for several years. Mr. Pilgrim says that he gave his 
share of the water to the children, and sustained himself on 
whisky and crackers. 

Some of our men had the good fortune to shoot and kill a 
pelican, a most disgusting sea-fowl that lives on fish, having 
a large pouch in front that holds his prey till time of need. 
Its flesh is black and tastes fishy. I had not tasted food for 
so many days, that I was constantly dreaming of soups and 
milk, or something to sustain life. We had a little sick boy, 
Laroy Griffeth, now more than sixty years of age, who also 
oraved food. The bird was boiled and the boy promised the 
meat, but I, not caring for the meat, craved the soup, worth 
more to me than its weight in gold. When, to my astonish- 
ment, the boy was in tears for fear " Aunt Mary would eat 
all the meat," while I was about as foolish about the soup. 
We had, a few days before, witnessed a burial at sea, and we 
naturally felt that, unless relief came soon, it would be re- 
peated. This was the first time I had ever experienced want 
— want of something to sustain life — and no wonder I wor- 
shipped the disgusting soup of the pelican, so that when a 
hurricane drove us into Aransas Bay, no wonder we did not 
think of Indians. And now, again, as we enter Matagorda 
Pass, Sunday morning, January 27, 1829, with all our fears 



of hostile Indians, whose telegraphic smokes told of our ap. 
proach, a joyful thankfulness filled our hearts, for we were 
entering the land of promise. 

The story of our suspense when our only boat left us at 
the mouth of the Colorado river has been told, and also of 
my having the honor of being the first white woman ascend- 
ing that river from the bay. The surroundings of our new 
home, as it then appeared, seemed to me quite romantic. 
Arriving in the night, I could only see a large enclosure, some 
fifty feet square. In one respect it was like Solomon's tem* 
pie — no sign of tools or nails being visible about our edifice. 
A large fire in the centre, a mosquito-net covering a rude bed 
at each corner of the room, the whole building being without 
joists or tennents, but simply forked sticks drove in the 
ground to support poles on which cross-poles were laid to 
sustain the mattress, while perpendicular poles sustained 
the mosquito-net — a thing quite indispensable. Our door 
turned on a post, the lower end of which was driven in the 
ground. The whole edifice was enclosed by perpendicular 
posts some ten or twelve feet high. At intervals the posts 
were forked to support horizontal poles, upon which the roof 
rested, and which was also supported on the inside by poles. 
True, there were mjrks of an ax, but nothing more. Long, 
split, dry cypress boards (so-called from float-timbers of some 
other coast cast upon the beach), formed a good substitute 
for shingles. Of the inmates, etc., I will tell in the next 


The instinct of races never dies out any more than indi- 
viduals. The Anglo-Americans are hardy and enduring be- 
yond all other races. Endowed with an incredible and 
inexhaustible energy, they never turn back or yield to reverses 
however severe or crushing. On the other hand, the modern 
Mexicans are, as it were, the debris of several inferior and 
degraded races ; African and Indian crossed and mixed, and 




«ven the old Spanish blood was mixed with the Moorish and 
demoralized by a long course of indolence and political cor- 
ruption ; both physically and mentally they are the very 
antithesis of the Anglo-Americans. 

They are as weak as he is strong ; they run where he 
fights ; they starve in the midst of abundance, while he knows 
how to pluck wealth and prosperity from rocks and sterile 
plains. Such was the state of things when the right of pe- 
tition was ignored and our citizens outraged, until 1835, when 
Santa Anna, having completed the revolution, changed the 
government of States into a centralized form of government 
and sent General Coss to take San Antonio de Bexar. The 
Texans defeated General Coss and sent him home. LaBahia 
and others were defeated ; and wherever a squad of Mexicans 
was met, as at Gonzales, the Texans made them surrender 
at discretion. 

On the 3d of November, 1835, the delegates of Texas as- 
sembled at San Felipe de Austin and put forth a declaration 
against Santa Anna and other military chieftains, who had, 
it stated, by force of arms, overthrown the federal govern- 
ment and institutions of Mexico and dissolved the solemn 
compact which had existed between Texas and the members 
of the Mexican Confederacy. After all the Mexican armies 
of 1835 had been defeated and sent home the Texans had 
great hope of not being disturbed again ; hence, the merchants 
brought on large stocks of goods, farmers made great efforts 
to extend each branch of that industry, and not the least 
show of alarm was noticed in any department of business, 
but we still kept a military force at San Antonio. 

On the 3d of March, 183G, the Texas delegates assembled 
at Washington on the Brazos, made a formal declaration of 
Independence, and signed a constitution and organized a 
Government. David G. Burnet, was President, pro tern., 
and Texas now meant business. They had driven back one 
army and they believed they could another, especially as 
their victory had become world-wide. On my way home from 
New York in December, 1835, I went to the theater in New 
Orleans to see "The Fall of San Antonio" on the stage. 


Our vessel bouDd for Matagorda was filled with volun- 
teers, who expected to come in contact with the Montezuma> 
tfc Mexican man of war, known to be cruising in the waters 
of the Gulf of Mexico, on the watch for all vessels bound 
for Texas. We ladies spent our time in making cartridges 
for our cannon, bought in New Orleans by my husband for 
the special occasion of the fight with the Montezuma. But 
more of this hereafter. 

As we approached the Texas coast every old cutlass was 
put in fighting order, our cannon mounted and our spy 
glasses constantly looking out for the enemy. When we 
were oft* the mouth of Cany Creek, our home, not knowing 
exactly where we were, being for several days beyond the 
sight of land, there appeared what we took for a fleet of 
several vessels. Then all were excited; we did not expect 
more than one vessel, still we had no idea of retreating, but 
kept right on towards what seemed certain death. But as- 
we neared these vessels the land appeared and these ships- 
of war proved to be our own summer residences. Still we 
had sixty miles to go before we could reach Matagorda Pass, 
and there would probably be the euemy. But no enemy ap- 
peared, and our volunteers left us to find their way to the 
western forts as best they could, but as we afterwards 
learned, they were murdered with Colonel Fannin. This was 
in January, 1836. All were animated with the hope of suc- 
cess. Houston was known to be west of the Colorado, and 
his army was increasing. The farmers prepared for planting^ 
and all the merchants brought on large stocks of spring 
goods. But bad news began to arrive. Still all was hope 
till we heard that Houston was retreating east of the Colo- 
rado, and sending home men to take care of their families, 
and of course our army was daily growing smaller and na 
reliable communication between the army and the citizens .. 
This silence and suspense had a most despairing influence 
on those who would have been glad to join the army if it 
could have been found. Some thought it had been annihi- 
lated. On the Colorado we had 1400 men, of course far toa 
few, and the enemy found the entire country evacuated and 



took possession of the vacant towns and enjoyed the largo 
stock of new goods. Thus^they divided in three parts — the 
Coast, Middle and Northern armies— so that at the battle of 
San Jacinto we had but 750 men with which to 'fight 1400. 
All the rest were enjoying the spoils in the evacuated country. 


This chapter must chronicle one of the exploits of the 
Texan war of 1835. While everything promised victory for 
the Angle-Americans, the news came to Matagorda that 
General Coss was defeated at San Antonio de Bexar, with 
such a bloodless victory and the fort taken by a mere hand- 
ful of green volunteers. The few that remained at home de- 
sired to win a part of the glory by driving from the country 
a small post at LaBahia, a place not far from the river which 
empties into the bay of Matagorda, thus our heroes could 
go most of the way by water. 

As it was well known that all old Spanish towns had govern- 
ment troops, more or less, they thought by attacking them 
in the night aiid surpi ising them, to make them an easy prey ; 
and thus win a share of the glory so freely accorded to their 
comrades who had defeated General Coss. After leaving 
their boats and while making their way in the greatest sil- 
ence toward the town, they suddenly heard the crackling of 
the bushes, and halted to hold a council of war. Did the 
enemy know of their approach ? was there a spy sentinel ? 
And if so, should they take him prisoner ? Finally, they 
concluded to accost him in Spanish . The response came — 
"My name is Milam." Poor Milam had been for years con* 
fined in a Mexican Bastile and did not know that any war 
was going on between the parties. His friends had lon^ 
mourned him as dead. Our heroes put Milam ahead as their 
leader, and marched forward and demanded the unconditional 
surrender of the town, which was granted after a few shots 
on both sides. At the time when found he was making his 
way toward Matagorda, where some of his family lived^ 
daring. to travel only in the night. 


When we returued home from a visit to New York, it was 
about the 15th of January, JL836, giving us plenty of time to 
get in our spring crops. Some of our friends had not yet 
returned from the fall campaign of 1835, being detained by 
sickness. These poor fellows were massacred while prison- 
ers of war with their leader, Colonel Fannin ; and San An- 
tonio was taken by an army twenty or more to one, about the 
same time, and every man put to the sword with no quarter 
given — all of which is a part of history well known. But 
there are some items not so well known. A negro man, an 
officer's servant, was spared to carry the news to the Ameri- 
cans, and when asked which one of our men killed the most 
Mexicans, replied : "Colonel Crockett had the biggest pile." 

When the news reached the country it created a panic. 
No one would venture to fall into such hands. Had our 
enemy been a civilized nation, no one would have thought of 
leaving their homes, for none had any doubt as to the final 
issue. Still to put ourselves in their power was certain mar- 
tyrdom. Hence the whole country moved at once in as great 
haste as did the Iraelites from Egypt, All unprepared, with- 
out animals enough to carry provisions and people. The 
sick and the young and helpless found graves all along the 
way; they had left comfortable homes surrounded by luxury 
and abundance. 


In the mouth of August, 1835, bofore the day of railroads 
and telegraphs — even before lucifer matches were used, I was 
one of some twenty-five passengers on a first-class packet 
ship sailing from New Orleans to New York, usually a twenty 
day's voyage. The first two weeks were pleasant enough 
with every luxury of the season, even ice and many tropical 
fruits, a well appointed, intelligent company, with just va- 
riety enough to kill ennui. But we had some dead calms and 
our vessel rolled unpleasantly without any progress. Any- 
thing for a change— we wished to see a "storm at sea'' to 



change the scene. Through the spy-glass we discovered 
another ship lying becalmed, and a small boat approaching. 
When near enough they asked for medicine^ and said their 
captain and most of their crew had died of yellow fever since 
leaving New Orleans. They were supplied, for our ship had 
all kinds of stores in abundance ; even cows, fresh milk, fish, 
fowls and butcher's meat, every day. 

About the 16th day the sun began to be obscured by 
clouds, and occasionally a little rain fell, which continued 
some three or four days, so that no nautical observation's 
could be taken, when at midday to the astonishment of all, it 
was observed that the color of the water had changed and 
now indicated shoal water, and then signs of a coming storm 
at sea. The lead was thrown and never ceased for twenty 
hours. It was found impossible to change our course, and 
we slowly but surely made shoal water, the wind all the time 
increasing, so that all hands were busy till dark reefing sail 
and making everything fast. The waves soon ran mountain 
high, sometimes in pyramid shape, when the top would be 
cut off, and till the air with blinding spray. 

Among the passengers was an old Spanish Koniish priest 
whose berth was next to ours, and as he could not speak a 
word of English, my husband often conversed with him in 
Spanish, and I noticed he always li<2;'hted his cigar with a 
lucifer match, the first I ever saw. 

All at once after dark, the rolling of the ship and the spray 
extinguished the lights. The man at the wheel could not 
keep the ship across the waves, and it was feared that we 
would be engulfed in the trough. What an awful moment 
was that! in darkness, and everything seemed to be break- 
ing loose from its fastenings. All we could do was to hold 
fast to our berths to keep from being thrown arcoss the cabin 
and hurt. We could only hear the captain shriek through 
his trumpet **hold on" at each lurch of the shij). The cry 
was for light, and no one seemed able to supply it. At last 
my husband applied <o the priest to light a candle. Xo one 
else knew how to light the match, and while my husband 
supported him to enable him to strike the match, he revealed 




the fact that he was a free masou, and said, ^^We shall all be 
saved, and to-morrow will be a pleasant day." But the 
water is still shoal, the wind blows a hurricane, the crockery 
falling about; all the stores of the ship seemed to have 
broken loose. The kitchen is swept overboard, cow, ice and 
even bulwarks. At last there is a light in the binnacle, and 
the vessel rides across the waves, though all is dark with- 
out, not a star to be seen. But the steersman was not the 
only one who had a light. We were sailing in what was ad- 
vertised as a temperance vessel, but the sequel proved that 
some casks of brandy were hid away in the store-room, and 
as the sailors had been now exposed for fifteen hours without 
rest or refreshments, it was thought expedient to send below 
and draw some for them, as an antidote for their fatigue. In 
trying to get it they let fall the candle among some mat- 
tresses which immediately took fire and could not be extin- 
guished ; almost as inflammable as gunpo)vder, the fire soon 
spread to stores that lay over the brandy. Never shall I 
forget the consternation of the steward as he came up from 
the store-room crying fire ! fire ! ! the ship is on fire ! All 
this time the lead measured the depth less and less. 

It seemed a long time before the captain could be made to 
understand, and when he called to the sailors to leave the 
care of the ship and fight the fire, they each thought they did 
not understand. But not so with the steerage passengers? 
the smoke and fire drove them on deck, where were some 
two dozen fire buckets and a large cistern prepared for such 
an emergency, and those men had been used to just such 
machinery before the time of fire engines in the cities. Aline 
was quickly formed on each side of the dining hall to pass 
buckets to and from the fire. Minutes seemed hours. 1 fan- 
cied the fire had already burned through the floor, for m}^ feet? 
wet and cold for hours, had become hot, and I expected an 
explosion as soon as the brandy casks had time to burn 
through. I therefore, in company with another lady, found 
my way over the bow of the vessel, making up our minds to 
to be drowned rather than burned, for the water had lost its 
horror comparatively. When my husband found me, it was 

- ~.~i 


... >•■■ 


with difficulty he could convince me that the floor was still 
cool by putting my hand on it. Still we shoaled, and it 
needed no prophet to see that we would soon strike if we did 
not burn. But a new calamity now appears. Our Captain is 
losing his mind. I had noticed before dark that he had 
changed boots for slippers, and cloth for linen clothes, and 

now he calls all his sailors" from the flre to raise the main- 


sail, though the wind had not abated in the least. What 
could it mean 1 "Wear Ship ?" no explanation. Told the 
})assengers "false alarm !" but I noticed blazing bedding still 
ascending the stairway, while all hands went at the halyards 
trying to raise the main sail. 

It proved that the wind had changed a little and no time 
was to be lost to get into deep water. I did not ktiow then 
how dangerous it was to "Wear Ship" in a storm. How 
thoughts crowd when we have but a few moments to live. I 
thought of the priest's presumption in saying we should all 
be saved, when it was the very match he gave us that was 
doing the mischief. The next day was calm and fair and 
found us in deep water. Twenty-four hours brought us 
into New York harbor in a most pitiful plight. Crackers 
and cold water was our best fare during that time, but there 
was no grumbling, for we were saved, though our feet and 
everything we had was wet. 

This was the fortieth trip our captain had made with this 
temperance ship, but he now lost his position on account of 
the brandy, and was obliged to take command of a small 
schooner as a means of support. 





The writer proposes to tell the experience of thousands who 
are looking for the Charch. Believing in a Divine revelation, 
not wishing tiO be an infidel, though almost driven to it by see- 
ing Christianity subdivided into so many contradicting sects. 
In this experience she lived some fourteen years of frontier 
life, cki the extreme border of Southwestern Texas. Seven 
years of that time not the remotest sect dare preach Protest- 
antism, on account of the laws of Mexico. While we, in the 
providence erf God, had wrecked books thrown by the sea to 
our very doors. At the same time, equally free from the in- 
terference 01 Eomanism, being hundreds of miles from any 
Romish spies, but knowing the laws of Mexico, no attempt 
was made to break them. So we were thrown on our own 
resources to understand the sacred canons. While books 
that we never should have asked for ministered to our under- 
standing — thrown up by the boisterous sea — contributed to 
an intellectual feast of soul ; and grave questions of life-long 
standing, that no sect could answer, came handed down from 
the first ages of Christianity, teaching us that the one Ajyos- 
tolic church could, after more than 1800 years, be identified, 
and so Providence showed us the Church in the wilderness 
of Texas. 

Our blesiired Saviour passed through all the stages of in- 
fancy and childhood, and he tells us that, " out of the mouths 
of babes and sucklings Thou hast perfected praise." 

Who does not remember the good-night prayer taught by 
a loving mother, from the lisping, "Kow I lay me down to 




Bleep/' to " Our Father, who art in heaven " ? Blessed and 
innocent childhood, insomnch that all that enter the kingdom 
of heaven must become like one of these. How religions the 
child ; how believing and trustful to all a mother's teachings. 
But alas ! how soon must the fruit of sect and schism poison 
his devotion, by telliqig him he is totally depraved; that God 
is his «nemy, because he is totally depraved ; that the moment 
the breath leaves the body, which is liable to happen at any 
time, nothing but everlasting burnings await him, because 
he is totally depraved, etc. But ere this cruel doctrine was 
taught me from the school-room and from the pulpit, I had 
learned to read a few forms of prayer for children Irom a 
Church catechism, taught by a loving mother, loug since gone 
to rest. How plain then was duty. What a privilege to read 
a form at eight years of age ; to retire to a glen in a deep 
wood and on my knees, daily. How determined at that early 
age to obey the Ten Commandments, though at that time, in 
western New York, no Church of England clergyman was 
ever in those parts. But a very few years more, and I was 
informed that none but the elect could be saved ; that it was 
self- righteousness to depend upon anything I could do ; that 
I could feel all my former hopes were only the fruit of my 
total depravity ; that nothing I could do was of any avail ; 
that God's grace was irresistible ; that in due time I would 
be converted, if I was one of the elect. In short, I must un- 
learn all the teachings of my infancy ; that prayer from the 
unconverted was solemn mockery, or downright hypocrisy ; 
and thus even prayer was stifled by the preachers; that 
forms especially were unacceptable ; that none used them 
but those who were so destitute of religion as not to be able 
to do without them. Strange to say that, while I believed 
this teaching, 1 never read the Psalms of David without ap- 
plying them to myself as a form of prayer. I became a great 
Bible reader, and then I thought all these hard doctrines were 
taught. I could not see that a full salvation had been wrought 
out forme, but I felt I must have a St. Paul's conversion, or I 
was not one of the elect. As mature age came on this logic of 
teaching became more absurd ; for, if true there was no use of 


prayer, and yet they exhorted prayer. The Bible did not help 
me, for I had been led by the wrong interpretation, and in my 
distress would exclaim, " oh, for a history to tell us what kind 
of teaching and belief the first Christians had before Christi- 
anity became corrupt through the ignorance and wickedness 
of the dark ages!" "Oh, that they had left something to 
show us how the first Christians understood the Bible!*' 
" Alas ! that the followers of the False Prophet could keep 
their history and the Church of the living God could not." 
That all pagans and Jews and all false religions know their 
own history, and we have never been instructed beyond 300 
years back (so said by a man in a place called a pulpit), be- 
yond which all were lost in Eoman and pagan superstition. 
All this was said in answer to Kelly Broadbetter, who 
asked her Aunt Mary Helm how she became an Episcopalian, 
when none of her relations were of that faith. She had read 
her bible and she never saw anything there that would make 
her one. " Please tell me how you came to go 3,000 mil^s 
from all your relations and friends, beyond the reach of mails 
and among hostile Indians." 

Aunt Mary — Child, you ask too many questions at once. 
You are too young now to realize that God has so ordered 
things in this world as to bring about His will ; that marriage 
is compared in the Bible to Christ and the Church, and calls 
it a ''mystery" ; the husband is compared to Christ and the 
bride to the Church. So, Kelly, it was love that caused me 
to go to Texas. God has so constituted us that the sexes 
overrate each other, or perhaps there would be no marriages. 
My first chapter, written lor the Clarendon NeicSj will answer 
this question, as also my sufferings in my voyage to Texas, 
in 1828-29, together with a great many things peculiar to the 
Southern people and climate. You will find in various items 
of these Scraps many things related that were the result of 
the theology found on the coast of Texas. 

Nelly — Whatdidyoudo on Sundays, without any church to 

Aunt Mary — I read my bible more than I should have done, 
otherwise; and I had the opportunity of reading a great 


many religious works, especially the writings of John Wesley. 
There were several shipwrecks on the coast, from which large 
boxes of books were saved. Then it was that I learned that 
John Wesley was an Episcopalian ; a strong Church of Eng- 
land man. 

Nelly — Aunt, I think you must have read about him before 
he became a Methodist, for I have often been told that he 
was the founder of Methodism. 

Aunt Mary — So he was, indirectly and unintentionally. He 
was a presbyter in the Church of England, a fellow of Oxford 
University, where none but Church of England members ever 
entered, either as tutors or students, at that time. He was 
warmly and zealously attached to the Church and never com- 
plained of/any of her doctrines and usages; and, to aid the 
Church, he, with a few other young men of the college who 
had also taken orders in the Church, formed themselves into 
a society to have stated seasons of prayer, and from the regu- 
larity and punctuality of their meetings they were called 
Methodists, They accepted the nickname. The Church, at 
that time, had hardly recovered from the evil effects of the 
revolution, caused by James II. proving himself a Eomanist 
and abdicating the throne, as well as by the revolution of 
Cromwell, and the various slanders in connection with the 
Church of England ; hence, the need of a revolution in morals 
and manners. Other societies were formed by other persons 
for the same purpose, but Mr. Wesley seenied to have peculiar 
executive ability, and ordered his meetings so as to take in 
all creeds and opinions, with officers as in the regular army. 
He found it easier to let in the waters of schism than to stop 
and stay them when once in. His organization became so 
large, he had to travel to regulate it, and he published from 
time to time twenty reasons why the Methodists should not 
leave the Church. His great error was in making preachers 
of laymen ignorant of the qualifications and duties of what 
the Church required of her clergy. The bishops and heads 
of the Church bore many things of Wesley, because he was 
very amiable, and as he advanced in age he took more and 
more liberty to do things not allowable by the rules of the 


Church ; but her authorities never tried him for those mis- 
takes against ecclesiastical rules. For instance, no church, 
even in this country, would allow a man to hold an outdoor 
meetiug alongside an organized church and regular minister. 
His organizations became so numerous that they had to meet 
often, and Wesley was the ruling spirit. Had he only taken 
in good, intelligent Church members to do his exhorting, as 
was his first members, his fondest wishes might have been 
realized. He was sent to America as a missionary, under the 
auspices of the English Missionary Society to Promote Chris- 
tianity in Foreign Parts, organized in 1701. Wesley was 
bom in 1703. This society sent missionaries wherever they 
had a province, of their own authority, and all the English 
clergy in America were supported by this society. The Pu- 
ritans of New England were so opposed to the English that 
they used all their influence to prevent an English bishop 
being sent to this country, and even after our Bevolution of 
1776^ and all through the century, the impression prevailed 
that we must not have bishops in this country, merely be- 
cause the^bishops sat in parliament in England. But no 
sooner had our Independence been declared, than an effort 
was made to have bishops ordained for this country, and 
while this was in progress, Wesley took it upon himself to 
send a Dr. Coke, one of his leaders (but few of his men were 
capable of being leaders), to organize a Methodist society ac- 
cording to his rules in Europe, and, as Coke was armed with 
a prayer-book,piis followers seemed to think it was the same 
old Church of England, though it will be seen in these essays 
that it (Wesley's prayer-book) was materially altered from 
the English liturgy. But few of them are extant now. The 
efforts of Wesley tojprevent a schism will be told in these 
Scraps, as well as^Coke's efforts to be consecrated a bishop 
by our first bishop. Wesley was very earnest in persuading 
the Methodists to be true to the Church of England. He 
says : " I am afraid that if the Methodists forsake the Church, 
God will forsake them." On his deathbed he says : " I live 
and die a member of the Church of England. I was never 
anything else." Dr. Coke, as these Scraps will show, never 



was a bishop, but acted as such. He sought the office, but 
obtained it not. But Wesley made no objection to Coke keep- 
ing up the conferences or to his being called Superintendent. 
But the next year after Wesley's death, he had the minutes 
of the conference changed from superintendent to bishop,, 
and " society " altered to " church." 

Nelly — Please Aunt tell me the difference of bishop and 
superintendent, are they not the same t 

Aunt Mary — By no means, a superintendent may be ap- 
pointed as a matter of expediency, or convenience in any 
human institution, but the church is a Divine organization 
made by Christ himself and called "iR« Body^^^ ^^His BrideP 
Its officers are not te take upon themselves the office, "but 
he that is called, as was Aaron." The New Testament is full 
of the analogy of its offices to the Jewish Priesthood, and 
for 1500 years this fact was never disputed. As the Old 
Testament had three orders, to-wit : Highpriest, Priest and 
Levite — so the New Testament has three orders. Bishop, 
Priest and Deacon. 

Nelly — But does not the word bishop in the New Testa- 
ment mean priest ? 

Aunt Mary — Yes, because the highest office of the ministry 
was then called Apostles, but histery shows that when the 
Apostles were all dead, that through reverence for them, 
that same high office was retained— i\iQ name only was changed 
to Bishop ; it is not the name, but the Divine office given by 
authority from Christ to the Apostles, and by them handed 
down to our time ; and has the promise that Christ will be 
with the office te the ^^end of time." Another reason why 
we should know where the church is to be found, we are re- 
quired to give of our substance to the church as giving to 

Nelly — But, did not the Episcopal church split off from the 
Catholic ? 

Aunt Mary — Nelly, suppose our National Constitution 
should be trampled under foot, and yet retain the old name 
of the United States and for centuries lord it over all the in- 


habitAntrB of these States, and the citizens rise iu their might 
and restore the goyernment, would it not be the same old 
goyernmeut resioi^l Jast so with the Church, when in th^ 
dark ages^ll learoittg was lost saye tliat kept by the Church ; 
when kings had such reyerence for the Church, that they 
would apply to it to arbitrate their disputes, until in the 
ignorance of the times, men came to belieye the presiding 
priest had a Diyine right oyer earthly kingdoms ; and a great 
many other errors crept in, little by little, till in the proyi- 
dence of God, both Church and State united in a reforma- 
tion to restore and reform the Catholic Church. In England 
they did not make a netc Church, that they knew could not 
be done ; but those in authority felt it their duty to throw out 
the errors that had been added by the ignorance and super- 
stition of the dark ages, supposed to haye been planted by 
St. Paul himself, and there is very good reason to believe it, 
by the writings of some of the early christians. It was 
found as the art of printing brought out old manuscripts, 
that in many usages she had gone from the primitive pattern, 
and had added many things to the old faith, in other words 
she had added to, rather than talcen from the primitive 
Church ; so our reformers had only to droj) from the Ritual 
such as was not ancient, as their rule in compiling the Com- 
mon Prayer Book of England, 

Nelly — I do not see, then, why you don't say the Catholic 
Church, instead of the Episcopal ? 

Aunt Mary — We do call it the Catholic^ but we also call It 
the "Protestant Episcopal," because we protest equally against 
the errors of Borne and the errors of the various sects. The 
Church has alwas held, that the word Catholic in her creeds, 
as understood in the ancient Church, which means orthodox 
and universal. While the sects have it in most of their 
formulas, not using it understandingly, because they apply 
the word solely to the Eomans, which means particular^ and 
so do most historians^ because they are not churchmen as a 
general thing, and custom has so used the word as almost to 
lose its meaning ; for myself I never call the Romish the 
Catholic Church. 


Nelly — Can you prove that the Ancient Church always had 
biHhops ? 

Aunt Mary — Many of the ancient churches kept a record 
of succession of their bishops for a great many years ; and 
all agree that it was only the bishops who received the suc- 
cession from the Apostles, who alone had authority to or- 
dain^ and each country had its own presiding bishop. Each 
bishop had his bounds and each country had its presiding 
bishop called Patriarch, generally submitting to the civil di- 
visions of the Empire. No bishop exercised any jurisdiction 
beyond his own diocese ; just as the Protestant Episcopal 
Church does here in the United States of' America. This 
country does not say Patriarch, but calls the eldest and one 
the longest consecrated. Presiding Bishop. So we are never 
without a President, and under no necessity for an election 
to know who he is. He does not claim Divine honor, neither 
did any of the Patriarchs in old times — but usage accorded 
courtesy to these patriarchs according to the character 
and size of their respective cities, and when Rome governed 
all the world nearly, she received more honor by being the 
Metropolitan city, and there was no danger of hypocrites, 
when to be a Bishop of Rome was generally to be a martyr, 
for several hundred years, and generally a very learned 
and good man filled the office, so that other bishops were 
wont to consult him on grave questions, discipline, etc. The 
churches of Antioch, Alexandria and Constantinople, were 
each headquarters of Patriarchs after Rome. After the 
fall of the Roman Empire, none claimed Divine Right, but 
mere courtesy, according to the size and importance of their 
respective cities, and when the great council of Nice assem- 
bled by the command of the first christian Emperor, Con- 
stantine, in 325, A. D., the Bishop of Roi&e was not present, 
but sent one of his deacons to represent his diocese, where 
there were 318 bishops present, representing all the churches 
of the known world, to decide the question of the Trinity ; 
hence came the Nicene Creed of our prayer book as expla- 
nation of the Apostles Creed, which all these bishops de- 
clared, had come down from the Apostles in essence, though 


not always iu exactly the same worde. The heresy of Ariue^ 
anuoyed the charch for a great while, and it grew into a poli- 
tical question, so that christiaas were persecuted and ban- 
ished as the friends or enemies alternately had the pre-emi- 
nence in the states, the African church mostly. The Church 
of England has a creed called the creed of Athenasius, after 
the bishop that was banished from the country where Arius 
lived, and so his writing-in consequence have been honored,, 
and much of our best theology has come down to us by simi- 
lar means through the dark ages, which the art of printing 
brought to light. When the barbarians overran the Boman 
Empire, they destroyed everything, even put to death its 
bishops and clergy, and made slaves of its inhabitants ; 
they did not destroy its Monasteries where all the religious 
literature of ages was i^ept — where the bible was kept. They 
did not dare to oflFend the christian's God, but persecuted the 
followers of Christ, because they would not acknowledge 
their gods', and it has been suppose 1 that out of this idea, 
images were introduced in churches to appease the heathen 
that had embraced Christianity, as well as to teach by the eye. 
In later ages this item became a subject of much contention,, 
but all these things did not destroy the Church. The tem- 
poral power of the Bishop of Rome, was forced on him in 
after ages, so as to raise a revenue for the kings, as the ignor- 
ance of those ages was terrible. All learning seemed lost,, 
and but for the old books, which the art of printing brought 
to light, il would seem as though Satan reigned triumphantly — 
some rare* exceptions always kept the Divine light burning. 
The sale of indulgences to redeem souls from purgatory 
originated with wicked kings ; even Charlemagne, in the 
eighth century was full of it, though he generally reigned well. 
Finally, kings had such reverence for the church, while they 
knew both would apply to the bishops of Rome to settle 
their worldly quarrels, till the bishops came to think to this day 
that they have it by Divine right. When, in 596; A. D., the 
Bishop of Rome sent his first missionaries to England, he 
found the Church already established there, and one of the 
Queens a christian, with her chaplains, and a good church 


building, whose foundation can yet be seen in the suburbs 
(ff Canterbury, and history shows how the Church had de- 
fended herself for ages against the Saxons and made slaves 
of the Britons, and how they would not accept Christianity 
from their slaves, but when one of their kings married a 
princess of France, they came to the church of their Queen 
by the thousands and were baptised 5 where the French 
bishop traced his succession direct to St. John and not to 
St. Peter, as the Eoman church boasts. 

Nelly — What is the reason the Episcopal Church in this 
country does not, also, have the Athenasian creed % 

Aunt Mdry — When our Prayer Book was compiled — on ac- 
count of the late war — the feelings of the great majority of 
Americans were very bitter agiinst the church, on account 
of its being a State Church in England; and it was hardly 
-endured in this country, and not till some thirty or forty 
years after the war of the Revolution, could they get a char- 
ter for Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, but the very 
next day after the law of toleration was passed, a charter 
was procured. This was in keeping with all the history of 
our Puritan Fathers sixty or seventy years ago, the blood 
of whose veins we all are proud to boast of; and these de- 
scendants are now perhaps mostly good Episcopalians. 
"Truth crushed to earth will rise again." 

Nelly — You say that the Episcopal Church always con- 
formed to civil government — is that the case in this country! 

Aunt Mary — Yes, our dioceses have their yearly gather- 
ings where they appoint delegates to the general conven- 
tions that meet every three years, corresponding to our State 
legislatures,' which choose the State Senators for Congress. 
As the Senators meet by themselves, so our bishops meet 
by themselves as the upper house, the representatives of 
each diocese send certain clergy and some laymen, which 
form the lower house. 

Nelly — After all, I do not see, but the succession of bish- 
ops might have been lost in the dark ages, when religion 
itself must have been nearly lost among the nations, almost 
savage ? 


Aunt Mary — Bat for the Church it seems as though all rer 
ligion, and all learning would have been lost. Its Divine 
institution kept it as a city on a hill, though persecuted, as 
was its founder, and frequently ^^a man's foes were of his 
own house." Its very errors seemed necessary at times for 
its protection, and was the means of many of the best and 
greatest of its followers to commit to writing such remon- 
strances as helped on the Eeformation, after th^ adft Of 
printing made it manifest how much those dark ages had 
added to the faith. The Beformers had no idea of making a 
schism, nor did the learned men of those times of the six- 
teenth century desire it. Nor did any one expect it, till the 
council of Trent excommunicated Queen Elizabeth, after a 
reign of eleven years, when the Pope of Borne caused her 
subjects to abjure all allegiance to her, and sent spies to 
assume a new sect, and held extenipore services and called them 
spiritual prayers. The Pope sent for them, thinking they 
had been apostatized — but they told the Pope tbey had 
caused the people in England, many of them, to hate the Eng* 
lish Liturgy as badly as they did the Mass Book, and so the 
Pope gave them two hundred ducats each, and this was the 
origin of extempore prayers in public worship. As to the 
succession of bishops, remember that it has generally been 
the custom to have three bishops at the time a new bishop 
was consecrated; thus imagine a rope of twelve strands 
subdivided by three for 1884 years ; if one strand should be 
in fault, it would not spoil the rope. This fact of the suc- 
cession was never disputed, for more than 1500 years, what- 
ever else was disputed, as chief rulers of the church, and 
those sects that ignore bishops to this day because they have 
gotten up a human substitute to preside in all these coun- 
cils by different names — a Moderator, a Presiding Elder, a 
Superintendent, etc. 

Nelly — Then why was it that on the continent they did 
without bishops? 

Aunt Mary — I told you that in England the Church and 
State united to throw off a "foreign power^' that had usurped 
dominion to draw money out of the country, that had* no 


claims to do so. But on the continent the State did not join 
the Church, but the State persecuted the Church and had a 
thirty years war, and the Eeformers expected to restore the 
succession when the times got better, and actually wrote to 
Lord Somerville, Protector of Edward VI., to procure them 
the succession. History informs us that Bomish spies inter- 
cepted this letter and forged an insulting answer, as though 
England had spurned the offer, and so they failed; though 
history is full of regrets from the leading Beformers that 
they had not secured the succession. And it is a remarkable 
fact that, in all those countries that dispensed with the suc- 
cession of bishops, they have subdivided and changed in 
doctrine and belief until, in their theological seminaries, they 
teach downright infidelity. Our New England Puritans are 
doing the same. The Unitarians or Congregationalists, when 
they left the Church of England, only complained of some 
usages, as vestments in public worships, discipline, order, 
etc. ; but no sooner had they become established in the new 
world than they began to persecute all that did not obey to 
the letter this state church. And now they are full of infi- 
delity, as witness here in Connersville last night by Henry 
Ward Beecher, in teaching his hearers not to believe the 
Bible, and teaching Darwinism — even going against prayer 
as well as Divine revelation — to a crowded house, the rail- 
roads bringing persons from the neighboiing villages at $1 
each ; and Young America, who never reads his bible, is to- 
day praising the lecture of last night. Four hundred dollars 
had to be assured to him before he would agree to come. In 
England, on the contrary, God made use of a wicked, bigoted 
Boman Catholic monarch in helping the Beformers throw off 

the usurpation of a foreign power, which power was granted 
to the Pope some centuries before, when King John sold the 
Church to the Pope for money, out of which the state at last 
procured the Magna Charta^ of which all the world, in civil 
suits, boasts to this day. So prone are mankind to extremes, 
that in throwing off* the power of the Pope, they throw oft all 
bishops, and sometimes lose all reverence for the Bible and 
its Divine teachings. You must bear in mind it was the old 
church reformed and not a new church ; jnst as a man is the 
same after he has waehed his face. 


Nelly — Did the Boman Church rule all countries as she did 
in England! 

Aunt Mary — No, not all ; but most of the States of Europe. 
But in the Bast, it was not so. The Eastern Church, to this 
day, never acknowledged the Pope of Eome only as a bishop 
in his own diocese. When Gregory the Oreat was Bishop of 
Eome, in the year 596, he sent missionaries to England. 
Eome was jealous that Constantinople would outdo Eome 
and get honors in temporal power. Gregory declared that 
when any bishop claimed temporal power, that moment he 
became anti-Christ, and to this day all the adherents of the 
Eastern Church, generally called the Greek Church, pays no 
allegiance to the Bishop or Pope of Eome, but they are in 
consonance with the Church of England. The Council of 
j Trent, which was in session one hundred years, more or less, 

i during the Eeformation, pronounced a curse on all christians 

I of the Eeformation. Thus came the schism. After 1500 years 

Eome separates herself and excommunicates all the Eeform- 
ers, in all countries, to this day; and yet they acknowledge 
the creeds, but refuse to follow the ancient church in its 
purity. As the Mohammedan religion rose to power about 
\ this time, and it is a moot question whether anti-Christ 

! meant the Pope or the False Prophet, when he is described 

I as "sitting in the place of God," etc., in many places both in 

the Old and New Testament. In the first place, the separa- 
tion of the Eastern and Western Churches, no doubt, was 
merely political. 
Nelly — Aunt, what do you mean by the Crusades ? 

Aunt Mary — Christians in all ages have always had a great 
reverence for the Holy Land, that is the country where most 
of the scenes of the Bible were transacted, and have been 
wont to make pilgrimages there to see the hallowed spot 
where the Saviour trod and made all the places memorable 
by his incarnation, " his holy nativity and circumcision ; by 
his baptism, fasting and temptation ; by his agony and bloody 
sweat ; by his cross and passion ; by his precious death and 
burial; by his glorious resurrection and ascension, and by 
the coming of the Holy Ghost." All these places were trod- 


den down by the Gentiles, and much did holy men of the 
Western as well as the Eastern Church, mourn and grieve to 
have it so. And many a time did the followers of Christ 
essay to restore these holy places, and tradition says that 
mysterious and miraculous phenomena occurred — fireballs 
breaking out of the. earth, destroying their works. . Finally, 
in about the year 1000, a zealous and religious king called 
for volunteers to form a great army to fight the Mohammedan 
power. On such a large scale did they volunteer ; with such 
fanatical zeal did they rush into the contest, that men became 
frantic to redeem the land from " Infidels." They went un- 
prepared with stores ; sought to live off the country through 
which they passed, treating friend and foe alike in devastating 
everything in the vast territories they passed through. And 
when one army sank away through defeat or famine or pesti- 
lence, another would be raised with redoubled zeal; and 
though this warfare was kept up for several centuries, it was 
not in their possession for more than half a century all put 
together, and when possessed they were all the time on the 

Nelly — Did any good come of this Crusade % 
Aunt Mary — In one sense, perhaps, some good may have 
come of this continuous war. It ought to teach men not to 
fight to do the will of God, for His weapons are not carnal 
but spiritual. And in a commercial sense it, no doubt, did 
do much for mankind. But fpr this the West would have 
been ignorant of the resources of the East, as the means of 
intercourse were then very limited. The East was the old 
country, and while the oppression of their rulers kept them 
in abeyance, most of the mechanical arts were in greater per- 
fection than in the West. 

Nelly — Did men learn thereby not to fight for religious 
purposes 1 

Aunt Mary — No, indeed ! The Beformatlon of the sixteenth 
century on the continent caused a thirty years war. The 
Reformers violated and at once tore away the usages of ages, 
exciting a horror in the minds of those who had a just rev- 
erence for things ancient. History shows that great violence 


to ancient things and things considered sacred, followed in 
the train of the Eeformation on the continent, much as it did 
one hundred years afterwards in England, during the revolu- 
tion there in Church and State, by Cromwell and the Puritan 
party ; when Charles I. was beheaded ; when the office of 
Bishop was suspended for twenty years ; when they made 
preachers of the lowest of the people ; when the revenues of 
the Church, given by holy men in the early ages of Christi- 
anity, in trust for its support, were sequestrated ; when all 
the prisons were filled with bishops ; when Archbishop Laud 
lost his head ; when, after all the prisons were full, all the 
holds of the ships in port were filled with men in holy orders, 
and yet this was not enough — every crevice was stopped to 
keep out fresh air, and still no room for the large number 
left out of prison — all were sent to the West Indies and sold 
for slaves. So says history. And the Puritan laws were 
such that those who had no means of living were not allowed 
to teach, while the usurpers were enjoying the tithes of the 
rightful owners, until the people got perfectly disgusted with 
the demoralization and called for the rightful heir to the 
throne, Charles II., to be reinstated. Charles II., having 
been raised in France, was not a zealons churchman and was 
loose in his morals. His brother succeeded him, and proved 
himself to be a bigoted Eomanist. The people of England, 
having had such a bloody experience by the Romanist, Mary, 
were greatly shocked to find another Bomanist on the throne, 
and so another revolution deposed him and placed his son- 
in-law and daughter, William and Mary, on the throne in his 
stead. William and Mary were Presbyterians; but, holding 
the office through the indulgence of the Church party, did not 
persecute, but it was a long time before the manners of the 
people recovered. After the death of Queen Anne, in 1703, 
the descendants of James I. came to the throne in the person 
of George I., who was the son of the Princess Elizabeth, 
granddaughter of James. So all the sovereigns of England 
since Elizabeth are descended from Mary Queen of Scots, 
who was beheaded in the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; but for 
a great many years the Englii^h had such a horror of the 


Bomaus that they had no voice in parliament, and as it was 
a maxim with the Eomans that ^^the end justifies the means," 
George III. said he would give up his crown before he would 
allow them a vote in parliament, and I believe it was about 
1830 before they were accorded the privilege, and yet they 
are not happy. 

Nelly — Who was this Cromwell f 

Aunt Mary — He was a General for the Rebels against 
Charles I, and in unity at first with the Scots. But Crom- 
well discovered that the church without bishops was more 
oppressive then the church with bishops. So he thought 
to go against both, and make him#elf Dict-ator and marke also 
an Independent Churchy where ea^ch member should have a 
voice in the government of the church. Hence the origin of 
the Congregationalists or Puritans, as a separate congrega- 
tion, as an organized body, though it had existed individnaliy, 
but as members of the Church of England, ever since the 
attempt of the Pope to make a schism in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, when his spies assumed extempore prayers and 
called them spiritual prayers. 

Nelly — But did not all this happen after the settlement of 
New England? and were they not called Puritans f 

Aunt Mary — Yes, as a nickname, but not as a church, for 
many of them never belonged to any other organization than 
the Church of England. And after they set sail from Eng- 
land on the Mayflower, some one of thei^ wrote an aflfec- 
tionate letter to the Church of England, calling her — "Dear 
mother, from whom they had been nurtured with spiritual 
life," etc., etc. But the most of them had been ten years in 
Holland, where they were Jiraited in their propensities to 
agitate the questions of their neighbors' faith, and a dissatis- 
faction thereby, induced them to seek a wider field, not only 
in religious opinion, but in a pecuniary point of view, for 
they procured from Charles I, a boundless monopoly of the 
fishing coasts and established a State Church, where every 
one was subject to a fine who refused to attend, and where 
every one was taxed to support it — and the penalty for the 
various grades of disobedience, were fines, confiscations, 



«tripes, banishment, imprisonment and death. But to go 
back to England, Charles found himself sorely pressed by 
two fanatical parties. The Presbyterians of Scotland and 
England, or that party in the Church which always chafed 
under the government of bishops, and the Independents, a 
new party who were followers of Cromwell. In his extremity 
after several reverses in battle, he threw himself into the 
hands of the Scots — Covenanters — who wishing to throw the 
responsibility of regicide on the Cromwell party, sold the King 
to the Cromwell party for £400,000. Charles was willing to 
concede everything to save his life — save the government of 
the church by bishops. In the meantime the Presbyterian 
confession of faith had been compiled. And after the death 
of Charles, Cromwell had what he called the directory estab- 
lished for public worship, where it was ordered-there should 
be forms of prayer for every occasion of public worship, ex- 
cept a short prayer from the speaker himself before sermon, 
and the historian observes — "he never availed himself of it, 
but always used a form.'' 

Nelly — Now, Aunt, you have told me the origin of the 
Methodists, the Puritans, the Congregatioualists, the Presby- 
terians. Can you tell me the origin of the Baptists ? 

Aunt Mary — Each of the above named parties have divided 
into a great many sects and are still subdividing. The Bap- 
tist has also divided into a great many sects. I think the 
first Baptist I ever read of, was one Meno, in the time of 
Luther, in Germany. He denounced all infant baptism, and as 
is usual, still thought immersion only was baptism. At the 
same time was guilty of great extravagence in conduct, inso- 
much that Luther came out of his hiding place to preach 
against this new sect. The next I read of them, is one hundred 
years after, called Brownists, from one Brown ; and I believe 
Bunyon was one, but I am not sure. Most of these sects 
were revolutionists^ hence we read of their imprisonment. 
But in America they originated with one Boger Williams in 
the early settlement of New England ; he and several of his 
associates, had been baptised in their infancy in the Church 
of England, and they concluded it was no baptism, neither 


conld they find a minister who had ever been immersed, to 
baptise them, so they immersed each other, and for this act 
they were banished to the State of Rhode Island, where 
toleration first became popular. Since I read the above his- 
tory, fifty years ago, a sect of Baptists, has superseded nearly 
all the old Baptists. I was acquainted with the first disciplo 
Alexander Campbell ever made. I knew him in Texas in 1830* 
He was raised in San Antonio, and some American traveler 
took a fancy to him at thirteen years of age, and took him 
to Bethany, Virginia, to teach him English, and the art of 
printing. He soon forgot his native tongue. He remained 
with Mr. Campbell seven years, and had so forgotten his. 
native language, that he had to have an interpreter to under- 
stand his mother's letters, and was so disappointed with 
his relations, after an absence of seven years, not being able 
to talk with them, he came to San Fillipe, where I was visit- 
ing, and insisted on going with us to Matagorda, eighty miles. 
We traveled in the night, and so used was he to look out for 
Indians, he fancied each bunch of bushes was covering the 
retreat of some Indians, who were trying to waylay us. I 
supposed it was from the early habits of the country, San 
Antonio being constantly infested with Indians. He told us 
he expected to publish a Protestant paper, and that he ex- 
pected to be a preacher. We tried to find out what ho 
believed. He believed in immersion^ but as to his faith, his 
sect did not believe in amy creed ; and so, as he was a candi- 
date for the priesthood^ we asked him to have prayers. My 
husband, being a Baptist, invited him. I noticed he paid 
no attention to Sunday, but took great delight in hunting 
and fishing on that day. He had a very nice volume of the 
New Testament, translated by Mr. Campbell in modern Ian- 
guage, many words different, especially the word baptize waa 
immersion. I admired his book, his name in gold leaf on the 
back in full, Joseph Maria de Jesus de Carrabahal. I did not 
know then, that to admire an article was the same as asking^ 
for it, and so he made me a present of Alexander Campbell's 
New Testament. I never saw him again, but the next I 
heard from him, he was an officer in a military organization, 


aad had married a very wealthy Mexican's daughter, whom 
Mr. Wightman had recommeuded and was acquainted with. 
So time passed on in the early years of my living in Indiana. 
All the Baptists of Connersville, were Campbellites-^they 
called themselves Disciples, and then Eeformers, and at last 
Ohristians, and the sects here seem to think it all right, as 
much as to say, the rest are not christians. The first one I 
heard preach, he said but little besides abusing the Ohurch 
of England, but said his people had got along without ordi- 
nation, but for his part he believed in ordhmtion, I went to 
a show of animals in this place and a big man and a big 
woman were in a side show. I asked the man where he was 
born. He said Jerusalem ; that he was a Bedouin Arab. I 
asked what all the bunches of silver medals meant, he had 
strung about his neck? he said badges for military services 
he had rendered in different countries, and then naming the 
countries, showed me one from Joseph Maria de Jesus de 
Carrabahal; I enquired his age and found it was my friend, 
but never a preacher, but a general. I see by Baker's Scrap 
Boolc^ he suffered in a Mexican prison for being concerned in 
Texas Independence, but is now dead, only last fall. The 
said Testament was sent to me from Western New York, 
where it had laid for fifty years. I had the pleasure of show- 
ing it to a Christian preacher lately, and I told him I thought 
I knew more about his church than he did ; he very meekly 
said, he supposed I did ; I told him how I found the church 
on the coast of Texas fifty years ago. I am told he was 
pleased with the interview, and said he intended to call again. 
No matter who you converse with, the different sects have 
strown their poison broadcast. I noticed in Hitchcock's 
Bible, seven pages occupied by the names of different sects, 
all called Church, Each original sect multiplied, until they 
hardly bear any resemblance to the original name, and I 
think some of the more modern, outdo the Ancient sects — 
"Holiness Society," Salvation Army," "Dunkards," *'Sin to 
Wear Buttons," etc., etc. 

Nelly — Now, Aunt, I would like to have you tell me some- 
thing of your own history, of your childhood and youth. 

Looking for the church. 79 

Aunt Mary — I was born in Herkimer county, New York, 
July 3d, 1807. My parents were New England born, but 
raised in Eastern New York. My father's name was John 
Hutchinson Sherwood ; he married, before he was twenty-one 
years of age, Janet Henderson, before she was nineteen. My 
father was born in Berkshire, Mass., my mother in Benning- 
ton, Vt. When I lived with them I had an opportunity to 
learn about their forefathers, bat had no curiosity until it 
wajs too late, and then I had a great desire to know all about 
them. I find the name Henderson in almost every State, 
town and county, and have never met with any one who 
could tell me why, or who was so prominent as to perpetuate 
the name. I know, however, that it is a Scottish name. My 
grandfather and one brother were left orphans early in the 
last century, and the brother was taken by some family that 
went to a Southern State, and that was all he ever knew of 
him. The Henderson's, to the third generation of my moth- 
er's family, in New York State, are all very intelligent men. 
The first medical college in Herkimer county was founded 
by two of her brothers. My father lost his father when 
quite a small lad. He was born in Massachusetts June, 1775. 
His mother was born June 3d, 1776. The Sherwoods were 
from England. We read of Sherwood Forest," etc. Two or 
three of my father's brothers were interested in Sarsfield 
"Medical College," Said college was famous for more than 
fifty years, till the great Professor Willoughby died, when 
other colleges superseded it — Geneva, of New York, and 
Willoughby of Ohio. The buildings were of wood and went 
to decay, but I think Herkimer is still a seat of learning. 
One of my brothers, born in 1798, left home from Steuben 
county. New York, the 2d day of November, 1818, to study 
medicine at Tamfred Academy. He never returned, but died 
in June, 1821, leaving a great many writings showing that 
he was a very precocious youth. I am the only one alive 
now that ever saw him. I am in hopes to have his memoirs 
published. My father bought a farm in Seneca county, in 
1812. I remember when he was called up in the night to 
meet the enemy on the Canada line. He did not serve at 



that time, bat, in 1814, he served on the lines through the 
winter months and left this brother, only sixteen years old, 
to see to the family — mother and nine children — and found 
time to teach a private school, besides providing wood, by 
chopping it, till my father returned, when peace was made, 
in 1815. The winter of my brother's death I was the pupil 
of the man who, in 1828| became my husband. Little did I 
dream or think of such a thing as ever having a husband. 
He was bom in 1792, so he was my senior some sixteen years. 
He was a graduate, I think, of this Herkimer seminary, and 
a very precocious youth. An only son, he had embarked in 
the mercantile business before the war of 1812, when only 
at the age of nineteen or twenty, and of course, when peace 
came they found themselves insolvent, and so he joined his 
father on a farm, a few miles from my father's, and taught 
our district school. English grammar was never taught at 
that time in common schools ; but Mr. Wightman persuaded 
my father to let me study it, and promised to put me through 
in four weeks. He gave me much praise, and spent some 
time in teaching me Class Elocution. My older sisters got 
no praise in that direction, but complained to my mother that 
Mr. Wightman was teaching me to declaim just like a boy,, 
in imitation of his own declamations in elocution. He wa» 
not happy, tied down in a country place, quite new and' un- 
cultivated, and often said he intended to go west and make 
his fortune. For three or four years his family reported to- 
ns where he was, but for the last three years Vhen he had 
been absent six years not the least intelligence came. The \ 
day I was sixteen years of age, old Mrs. Wightman called at \ 
our house to inquire if she could procure my services to teach . 
a private school for her grandchildren, having heard her son \ 
say that I was competent. She complained that there was 
no enterprise in the district trustees. I had not supposed 
for a moment that I was old enough to assume the responsi- 
bility of the woman, but so it was. I taught a small school 
in a private room in the Wightman mansion. Before I was 
seventeen I was invited to teach a gratnmar school in the 
same room as some young ladies, ten or fifteen years my 

■ .1" 




seniors, had taught school, and intended to teach again, but 
had never had an opportunity of learning English grammar. 
The Wightmans told that their son had said I could teach 
grammar just as well as he could himself. So I taught these 
ladies smd several granddaughters and grandsons of the 
Wightmans.' One of these ladies was a member of the Pres- 
byterian church, whose minister I had walked a long mile to 
hear preach, but had never made his acquaintance, though I 
took in all he said and remembered it all to my sorrow. The 
following summer said minister sought my acquaintance, to 
teach his district school in the country. His lady member 
had bragged of what a good grammarian I had taught her to 
b^. Hence, he had sought my acquaintance, for he had never 
hful any teacher in grammar. All this time my associates 
were my seniors, and as my father was a farmer with six 
daughters, I saw very plainly I could not depend on him 
for support. At that time no orHamental or fancy work 
could be bought in the store. I had learned to embroider at 
school, at eight years of age. I took up painting in water- 
colors. I never spent an idle moment. I was taught to spin 
and weave, and put in all my time, when not teaching, with 
my needle and my paint brush. As all the farmers among 
whom I taught had woolen rolls from their own sheep, I 
soon earned enough to make a long piece of flannel, and so 
manufactured cloth for sale. So I only enjoyed with my 
family without making expense foi' my father. My first in- 
terview with my old teacher is told in these Scraps in Chap- 
ter I., written for the Clarendon NewSy in 1878, as well as my 
strange life in Texas. In 1841 we sold out in Texas, so as to 
make a change of climate, to try to improve Mr. W.^s health. 
We exchanged for property in Covington, New York. We 
arrived in August, 1841. He died on October 26th, the an- 
niversary of our wedding day, just thirteen years before. 
Another strange coincidence ; all the years of my childhood 
and youth, I had a vague presentiment that I should not 
spend my days among the hills and beautiful valleys and 
lakes of Western New York. I was sure I had never seen 
the man I would marry. All my associates wore persons 


greatly ray seniors^ hence I hoped to learn by their exper- 
ience, 80 I got the name of being scornful to my old school- 
mates. When I was about fifteen, a missionary of the 
Episcopal Church, by the name of Hopkins, had Divine 
service in our district schoolhoase. Some ladies came in a 
cutter ten mile^ and drove themselves, it being good sleigh- 
ing, and did the responding. I remember he gave out a 
hymn from a Methodist book, to accommodate the congrega- 
tion. Our school-teacher who became a baptist preacher a 
short time afterwards, gave a lecture denouncing the doc- 
trine and usage of the missionary and said most emphati- 
cally that no prayer was ever answered that was not inspired, 
as it was expressed extempore. I had never read or thought 
on the subject, but he being my teacher, I was wont to be; 
lieve all he said. Our teacher was full of the Calvinist 
doctrine of electiouy and so I was in hopes it would some day 
be made manifest that I was one of the elect^ and as all my 
associates were of these doctrines, I was always in a way to 
be confirmed in the belief. Again, in the spring of 1828, I 
went to a select school in the village of Hammond's Port, 
taught by a baptist preacher. A missionary from Bath, the 
county seat, ten miles distant, came and held service and 
baptised some children ; he also brought out some ladies to 
respond and sing the chaunts, which appeared to me to be 
very artistic. None of the congregation joined them. The 
next day we came to a halt in lessons. All the forenoon was 
occupied in denouncing the heresy of the Episcopalians 
none of us were able to defend the missionary, and so time 
passed. In the following fall of 1828, I started with a col- 
lony of sixty i)er8ons for Texas, and had no more preaching 
or theology, save what I found on the Gulf beach. 


j_jOk!)jnL 1 k!)i 


The present generation in this country can hardly form an 
idea of the ' meaning ,of the word r^everence^ as compared 
with our ancestors, and I am sorry to say that each genera- 
tion, but surely, gradually approaches to that state of human 
affairs, where the want of reverence is not only telling in 
the family, but in the church and state. Thei'e is a wrong 
somewhere, and the trouble is to find the remedy, that so 
little heed is given to the admonition of parents, teachers 
guardians and all that are in authority. The child who has 
no reverence for the authority of the parents, of course, will 
have none for teachers and is in a poor frame to be taught ; 
hence so few ripe scholars at the present day, compared 
with their opportunity. This want of reverence, fosters 
self-conceit in the young, and excludes a teachable spirit — in 
their opinion the aged are below par. To be young is to be 
honorable. To be old dishonorable. How different the teach- 
ings of Divine Revelation ; and how different the teachings of 
Ancient History. Even in some countries now, we are led 
to admire the reverence of the young to their superiors. 
That man is in a poor frame to honor the Supreme Being 
that has no reverence for his fellow men, especially none for 
his elders and superiors, and hence "The way of Zion mourn 
and none come to her holy feasts." And lastly this W3.nt of 
reverence, is destroying the bulwarks of the State. It causes 
wickedness in high places ; pulling down all that are in 
authority ; unworthy characters rising to the surface in the 
political caldron, while the worthy modest man is left in a 
small minority, and if anarchy ever prevail over our Repub- 
lic and beloved country, the prime cause will be the want ot 
the grace of Reverence. 




The good book says, '*Briug up a child iu the way he 
should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it.'^ 
Much has been said and done in the cause of temperance, 
and yet the evil grows. Does it not become us^ as one ex- 
periment after another fails, to seek the cause ? Where there 
is responsibility, there is always corresponding power. This 
is conceded by all, we take for granted, both in the civil and 
military departments of state, and in the family. The good 
old times, when children honored and obeyed their parents 
are passed away ; when they honored and obeyed the civil 
authority, has passed away. Time was when no youth 
was ashamed to give an account to li^is parents of all hi^ 
absent time. Both love and duty prompted him to do so. 
Time was when to honor the civil authority, was to be a good 
and loyal citizen. i^Tow young America is ashamed to brook 
a father's advice, and a father is in dispair, as far as anything 
he can do to reform a wayward son, and calls on society at 
large to come out and stop the nuisance that is tempting him. 
If a son will not regard the commands and entreaties of a 
parent, what will he care for popular opinion ? Each parent 
has his own work to do, and not that of his neighbor or that 
of the public. 

The home education is the cause of all this evil in our sons, 
and the home education should be the cure. When we un- 
happily discover anything wrong in our children, we should 
take it for granted, that there has been something wrong in 
their home training. We grant example has much to do, 
but when we discover that the majority do not honor pa- 
rental authority, and of course no other, we must conclude 
that matters are growing worse. It is well known by all 
who have traveled in foreign countries, that the United 
States are peculiar in this particular; that in other conn- 


tries the very first principles of all that is good, whether we 
look at the family, the church, or the state, is implicit obedi- 
ence and reverence to parents, as the foundation of every 
right principle ; and the finger of scorn is pointed, and the 
youth is forever disgraced, who would dare to disobey his 
parents — so as to disobey his command or even wishes. So 
marked the difference of our8 and other countries, as to the 
deportment of youth. They tell me the respect of parents 
almost amounts to worship in good society in the old coun- 
tries, and never fails to astonish the American — showing 
he is not used to it. So I will do my little might in pointing 
out the cause and the cure of the dissipation of our youth in 
this place. There is a special command in the bible to 
fathers, "To command their sons,'^ and if they will not do it 
and that all the time from their earliest infancy, they can 
hope for little by calling on the public. 

1869. Mary S, Helm. 


In the year 1851, when our first bishop had sent his first 
missionary to Connersville, several families of the church 
had just settled here, and one man of the Lutheran denomi- 
nation, whose wife was a church woman, and who took an 
active part in the church Sunday school, but still knew 
nothing about the church and the denominations, as ignorant 
of the church as they could possibly be ; partly to tantalize, 
and partly to learn something — I required this man to tell 
them who made the Episcopal Church? and so he came to 
me with the questions which he could not answer. I an- 
swered him with the following questions : 

1. Is the church of God a human or a Divine institution t 

2. If divine, has man a right to change it, or has man a 
right to divide it ? 


3. Aud when so divided, is each division a church ? 

4. What church on earth is the most like the primitive f 

5. What was the church like before the Bishop of Rome 
claimtBd universal power in the dark ages I 

6. Who had the promise of being the witness and keeper 
of the truth ? 

7. Was the Christian church even thep, more corrupt 
than the Jewish ? 

8. Did the Eeformation in the sixteenth century seek to» 
reform the church of divine authority, that ignorance and 
superstition had gradually brought in, or did they make a 
new church ? 

9. Who were the Martyrs ? 

10. Where was the church before the rise of each sect ? 

11. Was the faith once delivered to the Saints a specified 
belief, or was it left to each individual to search out a belief 
according to his private judgment? 

12. And the leader of such system forming a society, is 
such a society a church ? 

13. Can there be anything new in religion t 

14. Would it not be likely to make infidels, for christians, 
to deny church history f 

15. If we admit history, is not her voice unanimous in 
declaring the truth of the Apostolic succession f 

16. Does not history declare that in all countries, each 
bishop and their church declare the succession of the 
Apostles, and that all religious history and the Bible, and 
the Liturgy of the primitive churches, were preserved in the 
religions houses when the barbarians destroyed everything 
else — said they respected the God of the christians, and only 
persecuted the christians because they would not also res. 
pect their gods ? 

17. Does any one pretend to say the church was lost iu 
the dark ages on account of the ignorance of the people ? 

18. What, but the revival of letters and the art of print- 
ing, con vinced the reformers of the necessity of a reformation,, 
and that they had gradually departed from the primitive 
pattern t 


19. And was it not literally demonstrated, that the church 
was the witness and the keeper of the truth ? 

20. Does any one deny history, then why deny sacred 
history, especially when confirmed by profane f 

21. Finally, is the truth to be compromised ? 

22. Does not the Scripture represent anti-Christ as some- 
how connecting with the church — as sitting in the Temple 
of God. And did not the Eomans pass most of the anti'- 
christian tenets in the sixteenth century ? 

23. To meet in the Council of Trent, where she ordered 
most of her anathemas ? 

24. Does it not appear evident that reforming the old is 
not making a church ? 

25. Consequently must she not exist underall kinds of civil 
government, and submit to the powers that be, even under 
the heathen rulers f 

26. And if the state see tit as in England, to support the 
church, is it wrong to submit I 

27. Did it not take all the power of both church and State 
to throw of the tyranny of Eome in England, in the time of 
Henry VIII ? 

28. Has the church changed one iota since that timef 

29. Does not the most learned of all denominations say 
the Church of England is the bulwark of the Reformation? 

Note — The original had (ifty anwwers to the question who made 
the Episcopal Church? 



The Result of Theology Found on the Coast 

OF Texas. 


NO. I. 

He that said, "Arise and walk," gave the power to walk ; 
and though man has gone very far from original righteous- 
ness, and is not of himself able to do works pleasing to God, 
yet the germ of love is implanted in his nature and will, by 
Divine aid, assist the meek and humble inquirer to grow so 
as to live in the element of love, which is the sum and sub- 
6tauce of all law and duty, for love and charity " thinketh 
no evil, suflfereth long, and is kind ;" it fulfills the law and 
the prophets, by doing " unto others as we would have them 
do unto us ;" it breathes a prayer to its great Author for 
every human being in distress. On all the works of the first 
great cause of all things it supplicates a blessing. In every 
state : first in the family, where the aflfections are cultivated, 
being of Divine institution, love is the grand element; in 
the church, where holiness is prominent, love to God and 
man is the sum and substance of piety ; in the State, where 
justice is taught, love for law and order recognizes the pow- 
ers that be as ordained hy Ood. Hence the school of love, as 
taught by the family, the Church and the State— all being 
Divine institutions — we may hope will be a prominent means 
to teach each one and enable him, not in theory only, but in 
practice, to answer the question, "What can I do f 



NO. 2. 


As a member of a family, I can do my duty '* in that state 
of life unto which it shall please God to call me" ; here in par- 
ticular the affections are cultivated ; here is the hallowed 
«pot revered in the book of memory for all future time; — 

Here the simplest form of speech 

That infant lips can try, 
Here the sublimest strains that rench 

The Majesty on High. 

Here woman, by her unostentatious and hallowed influence, 
reigns pre-eminently. She may not preside in Church or 
•State, but she trains the hand that ministers in the one and 
guides in the other. Here the devoted wife and affectionate 
mother, the gentle sister and obedient, confiding daughter, 
exerts a conservative influence on all within the sacred pre- 
cincts ; here the devoted husband and father does more by 
precept and example than all the schools of philosophy to 
soften the heart, restore the wayward, or reclaim the erring ; 
here the brother and son is in his true element, where no 
substitute could fill the vacuum of an inquiring and affection- 
ate mind; here is the nursery for the State, and here the 
nursery for the Church, as the Church is the nursery for 


NO. 3. 

In No. 1, we commented on love being the sum and sub- 
stance of all duty ; and that the family, the Church and the 
State were schools for love, by Divine appointment. In No. 
2, we considered woman's sphere and the hallowed influence 


of the home relations — the family. In this, No. 3, we pro- 
pose to consider the claims of that Divine society called the 
Church. Mankind, in all ages of the world, has had a long- 
ing for a brotherhood ; hence the fraternities, of whatever 
name, have their origin in the feeling of the necessity for 
this brotherhood ; showing a desire for a something they have 
not by nature. They all have for their object some good to 
be derived from their mutual aid and concert, for which only 
human aid and sympathy are promised. Whereas the society 
of Divine appointment has the promise of Divine aid, and 
not only promises all the good of those of human origin, but 
it becomes to the humble believer a school where we are 
taught our true relations to God and man ; where we are 
shown the exalted state man is capable of iu this sacred 
brotherhood ; a continued brotherhood from the creation to 
the end of time is what the Church calls "the communion of 
saints." He that would be true to his family must have but 
one family. He that would be true and loyal to the State 
must not swear allegiance to any other state, or try to raise 
a rival government within its bounds ; so he that would be 
true to that society of Divine appointment must not substi- 
tute aootber iu its stead. 


NO. 4. 

Having considered the family and the Church as Divine 
institutions, we propose a few remarks on our duty to the 
State. And here we go back to the family and the Church 
to prepare us for good citizens. Would we be loyal and true, 
honoring and obeying the civil authorities, we would hardly 
be so if not properly trained and guided by the teachings of 
the family and the Church. If to a heathen prince, it was 
commanded to render unto Csesar the things that are Caesar's, 
surely it cannot be the teachings of true Christianity that 
will talk of resisting the powers that be. The Church teaches 


"to honor and obey the civil authority," and to carry our- 
selves lowly and reverently, to submit ourselves to all our 
governors and teachers, and to do all things calculated to 
make peace and happiness, religion and pietj'^ in a nation ; in 
great contrast with a popular teacher, who recommended 
cannon balls and Sharp's rifles from a pla^e called a pulpit- 



God has given us three institutions : The Family ; the 
Church ; the State. The duties of each harmonize and com- 
mend themselves to our instincts and our reason. Mankind 
longs for a brotherhood and for society. Each state has its^ 
own peculiar duties. First, the family ; where the boundaries 
that separate it from its neighbors are not geographical but 
confidential ; where the freest speech and mutual interchange 
of thought is supposed to be sacred from outside ears ; where 
no locks or keys are necessary ; where jokes are taken for 
what they are worth ; where thoughts are spoken without 
reserve ; where the interest of one is the interest of all. And 
if death breaks up a family, and a new one be assumed, still 
the obligations of the new family are the same, if not all that 
makes home lovely is gone. What a miserable substitute 
for a home is a place simply to eat and sleep ; such a place 
only fosters selfishness and isolation. 

Thus much for the assumed family. In the first family, 
angels were the witnesses and God the priest; hence the 
Divinity of the institution, and hence the blessing of the un« 
godly, as we often see. Who has not been surprised at the 
number of happy marriages considering the depravity an(] 
disparity of the subjects. Here begin the Hew relations and 
new duties, and generally new responsibilities — all for our 
happiness, all fulfilling the Divine behest. Where the happy 
pair become interested in wide and universal benevolence} 


interested in the very foundation, tbe very nursery of Church 
and State; become one of a compact, of a society, of a 
brotherhood. He was a stranger before ; but a new interest 
has opened before a new and coming generation, where a 
woman has the honored office to train and guide the mind 
that is a candidate for immortality, may be for an office in 
the church or state, or both. What higher right can a 
woman desire ? These obligations she may not delegate to 
another, but they may be delegated to her in case of a moth- 
er's death. The family should always be the nursery for the 
church, as the church is for heaven. The family should all 
be made members of the church before they know how to 
choose the good or reject the evil, and then taught to "live 
according to that beginning." *'The church is the keeper of 
the truth." The Ethiopians had the bible, but must needs 
be guided by an officer of the church. Without the church 
you have no guarantee against being "carried about with 
every wind of doctrine;" like being at sea without chart or 
compass, some favorable breeze might send us to a friendly 
port, but where is the certainty t We need all the help that 
God has given us. How could we prove the Divinity of the 
scriptures without the church, or be able to reject all the 
vague and wild interpretations of fanatics or anti-christian 
doctrines. The bible compares christian baptism to Noah's 
ark, as saved by water. Mankind longs for a brotherhood, 
and Ood has given the family, the church, and the state. 
The duties blend, all based on love and wisdom, and all 
Divine; hence the foundation, the family being right, all is 
right; and here is work for woman. In many places the 
Bible compares the neglect of duty to divine institutions, to 
breach of trust in the family, and want of loyalty in the 
state. As the state requires loyalty and allegiance from 
each citizen, so the church cannot owe allegiance to all 
religious sects, for it is on account of its divine origin only, 
that we love and honor it ; and they that forsake the church, 
the Bible compares to an unfaithful wife. So I think the 
analogy of the duties of these Divine institutions holds good 
in all its duties. All these organizations are risible^ that can 


be seen and known. There is not now an invisible church, any 
more than an invisible family, or an invisible nation. As fami- 
lies and nations become extinct in certain localities, so unfaith- 
fal churches in certain nations are removed, and their places, 
like the nations trampled down by false religions, without 
destroying the church universal, however, which has the 
promise for all time as the "witness and keeper of the truth." 
These thoughts are the result of twenty-seven years study 
and observation. In my isolated situation, I appreciate the 
blessing of the family, the church and the state as divine, 
though abused. Mary S. Helm. 

Note — Written before our late war. 


Di;cEMBER 23d, 1869. 
All the so-called churches are, and have been having a 
protracted meeting. They have put out hand bills like a 
circus, thus — "$1,500,000 money can buy it," and quoting 
scripture as though they were the vicegerents of Christ. 
These hand bills are all over town, and on each side of the 
Methodist church door. Ed. Claypool has offered a reward 
of five dollars to any one who will inform him who stuck it 
on the bank building. I think it a good way to make infidels. 
Young people do not know how to separate the absurdities 
from the truth, and the chance is, they will learn to despise 
all religion, and have no reverence for God or man. These 
sudden conversions are always spjirious. We might see it 
from analogy, if the scriptures were silent ; but they are not 
silent — "first the blade, then the ear, then the full corn in the 
ear 5" as it is, the blind lead the blind. While we have suf- 
fering poor on all sides, last Sunday they raised $40 for the 
negro in the South ! 

OONNERSVILLE, November 12th, 1852. 
# # * # gjjg seems convinced, but what good will the 
truth do us, if we do not make personal application of it. 


Will it not be as it was with the Pharisees who "rejected the 
counsel of God against themselves not being haptised.^^ Are 
not God's ordinances and ministry on earth/' instead of 
Christ's personal presence f What is something visible? as 
we have bodies as well as souls, do we not require something 
material and visible, and has not the great head of the church 
provided it ? Has he not provided a living ministry ! Can 
it be now strongly proven ? Do they not stand in Chrisfs 
steady praying us to be reconciled to God ! Are we put here 
as spectators, to see others experiment and make new socie- 
ties, and call them churches, and talk of the invisible church 
while they scorn the one divinely instituted ? Will you virtu- 
ally take sides with those scorners and reject the council of 
Ck)d against yourself by not being baptised ! Let me tell 
you that there is not one promise in the whole scriptures for 
the unbaptised. It is true — we are told "not to forbid" those 
that "follow not with the Apostles," but we are not told to 
follow them ourselves, a great lesson to be learnt thereby — 
t];iat we should love and respect those that follow Christ 
after the best of their knowledge and forbid them not. But 
who would not say that it is not safer to follow trith the 
Apostles? Enlightened. as you are, you are only safe to 
follow Christ in the Apostolic succession. You do not say, 
or even think you will not follow him. He has not promised 
to bless you, as long as you reject his baptismal rite — it is 
not a vain thing to belong to God's family. He requires 
faith and repentance, both of which you have now as much 
as you ever will have. You have as much life as the unborn 
infant has, but still you are not '^born of water ■''^ The being 
born of water gives you claim to new promises, puts you in 
a new position, hence it is compared to birth (but the child 
did have life before, but a great change takes place at birth, 
puts him in a new state, has new claims, new relations); and 
again, the church is called Christ's bride, there is little mean- 
ing to a few words of a marriage ceremony, but what a 
change of relations, of state, what ties, what claims, we knew 
nothing of before. Our case is materially changed by a few 
words. Again, this rite is the seal of the covenant, or bar- 


gain. Now what written ittetrument is good for anything 
without a signature. 

God .sees fit to oovenant with his rebellious children; his 
conditions are simple and easy, "his yoke is easy and burden 
light." I never fully comprehended the use and meaning of 
the ordinances until I studied them in the book of common 
prayer. How true it is that the church is the witness and 
keeper of the truth. The bible after that, had a meaning in 
her ordinances. You are of age, you are responsible, you 
have no husband to oppose you, you are under no particular 
obligation to ask the advice of even your parents, for you 
know they err from their early tradition and education. You 
must obey 6od rather than man. He has promised to be 
with his apostolic church till the end of time, and he has 
promised to be nowhere else. Go then, in the way of his own 
appointment, and say, "Lord, I believe, help thou mine un- 
belief." He will bless his own appointed means. Use all 
the means of grace that the church, as nursing mother under 
the Divine head, has provided. Try to get rid of the teaching 
of your whole life. Give up the idea of an invisible church 
on earth or an invisible baptism, if you reject water baptism. 
"Except ye be born of water and the spirit, ye cannot enter 
the kingdom of God." We know there is no virtue in water, 
but He that commanded it, pleased to make an outward sign 
of inward grace. Is he not able to bless his own appointed 
means *? First the blade, then the ear, then the full corn in 
the ear. We have no right to look for miracles. Try to get 
rid of the notion of once in grace always in grace ; the enemy 
of souls never set a more dangerous trap. It is always safe 
to inquire how the church always has believed on the great 
questions of theology, for at the Reformation they had the 
means of knowing what the primitive church believed, and 
you know they did not make a new church in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, but went to the old one; and every great verity of 
the christian faith, was fairly recorded by apostolic men, and 
even in the darkest ages, not one great verity was denied 
by the majority, but much was added to the faith by means 
of ignorance and superstition, which called for reformation 

<• ^-k ■> <a « 


• , „f i.iTnr. made it maijife»'. "ticli »orl 
a, tue people were able to bear .t. 




;D '^'^WS 


'™S:., t.e .a.e t«„e . ™t «'...-;»»-;', 

wbUe they bUe lent their »id a»d been .be medmm of p. 

I'd p ai^e tor and martyr, of the '^'^'^^Vl^Sc 
tro„,%bile it i. in faet and tmtb, an 'l"'"'"'' »"'^ 
left to US from those tbat Have passed from the el 
l!i«»., .0 the ebnreb ,r,„„„;,.««. All .he.e serv.ees 


sang and are to this day sung in many churches. Can you 
imagine such service without feeling that we are akin to 
angels, that<^we were created to enjoy a higher, a holier state 
of existence ; and what higher aspirations can we aspire to, 
than to pultivate a foretaste for such enjoyments by singing 
God's praise in his earthly sanctuary? That what is so 
plainly your duty may become your pleasure, is the sincere 
prayer of your friend, Mary S. Helm. 



NO. 2. 


I addressed you on the subject of singing from the spiritual 
and religious point of view. I now propose to address you 
from a worldly point merely ; though it is hard to disconnect 
a subject of duty, so self-evident as obedience to parents and 
a decent respect for friends, from religion. Certainly it would 
come under the head of good morals, which is always em- 
braced by religion ; be that as it may, I feel inclined to have 
a friendly chat with you on paper. Far better would it be 
for the church in this place, if the public did not know that 
your father had good singers in his family f but knowing it, 
as they do, they feel like leaving their own church, when 
the family of the clergyman refuse to do what they can. It 
shows a great want of reverence and perseverence in more 
ways than one. 

One of the ordination vows is, that the candidate shall 
promise to make the "lives of his family wholesome examples 
of the flock of Christ.'' You hurt the cause of the church 
when you refuse to obey your parents, which every one 
knows you must do, if you did not own as much, yourself. 
You have freely sung yourself into reputation by your good 
voice. Your absence or silence when present makes us all 
feel that something is wrong somewhere. Outsiders ;wrould 
naturally think and believe there had been some offense 


given, thus indirectly injuring others beside yourself. It is 
too late to say that you are too bashful or timid, because five 
minutes acquaintance would convince any one to the con- 
trary. You of course are not always indisposed at church 
hours, and ready to go any were else at other hours. We do 
not ask you to play, neither should you do so till you can 
read notes, and far be it from me to blame you for being em- 
barrassed on such occasions ; but your voice is worth all the 
others put together, and I cannot help but think that you 
act like a spoiled child when you refuse the easy boon of 
doing what you can, with all the drawbacks of our small 
choir and poor congregation, surrounded as it is with criti- 
cism and those that would delight to make the church and 
all connected with it a failure ; and no one thing contributes 
move to that end, than the very course you are taking. Miss 

is under no, obligation to play for us, neither have we a 

right to expect other denominations to leave their own meet- 
ings to sing for us, as they have, and I venture to predict 
that the time will come, when all outside help will fail, if 
you persist in iguoriug the plainest principles of duty and 
expediency. I care not how talented or good a clergyman 
may be, his children may hurt his usefulness, if they do not 
unite by all the means in their power to aid the good cause, 
as the blessed Saviour said of himself— "he that is not with 
me, is against me," The members of a fraternity can do 
more harm by their indiffereoce than an open enemy. To rise 
to the feet at proper places is good manners at all times. 
Oommon sense directs that we stand to praise, stand when 
we declare what we believe, as if we were ready to defend it 
as a soldier of Christ, as we are supposed to be, if we have 
been baptised unto him. A soldier when on drill is always 
on his feet. Time was when to say the creed as we do, was 
a test of martyrdom — hence the comparison of a soldier to be 
hrave and not afraid to stand in token of our courage. Com- 
mon sense teaches the very heathen to how in time of prayer, 
even to the idols; and shall we not do as much in this chris- 
tian land, and especially those that are supposed to be "ex- 
amples to the flock of Christ?" No one lives for himself 


alone, even in a worldly point of view (which alone, I pro- 
posed to discuss). Good policy dictates a mutual courtesy 
and kindness, did we think of nothing beyond the good things 
of this world. Then, what madness to ignore that talent 
that costs you nothing to use, and the neglect of which is a 
*^ desideratum^^ greatly to be deplored in the usefulness and 
well being of your own parent, individually, as well as the 
<iause which he represents. Mary S. Helm. 



My Bear Little Girls: — It was a very solemn promise and 
vow I made in your name when you were baptised. I want 
you all to read in the prayer book the baptismal service, 
that will instruct you in more ways thaivone. It would be 
a great sin in me if I did not insist on your learning the 
<5reed, the Lord's prayer and the ten commandments, and 
then I want you to consider the first promise I made for you, 
that you should renounce the devil and all his works. You 
know that all wickedness is the work of the devil, and when 
you strive to be good girls, gentle and obedient to your 
parents and others that are over you, and when above all 
things you speak the truth, even if by so doing you expose 
some of your own faults, you are renouncing the works of 
the devil. And whenever you are disobedient and insolent 
to your parents and superiors, or should you ever be tempted 
to tell a falsehood to hide some fault or gain some advantage, 
then you are doing the work of the devil, which I promised 
you should renounce. I promised you should renounce the 
vain pomp and glory of the world. And whenever you think 
more of a little girl because she is dressed better, or because 
she has the good things of the world in abundance, you 
break that promise. And when you want those good things 
so that others may love yon for the sake of your fine clothes, 
you break the promise I made, when I said "with all the 


covetous desires of the same and the siuful lusts of 
the flesh.'' When I promised you should renounce 
the vain pomp and glory of the world, all deceit was 
embraced ; that we should not pretend to be any better 
than we are ; and while it denounces the vain show of dress, 
it requires that we should keep decent at all times, and that 
little girl who obeys her parents and does her duty in all 
things, will not be apt to do otherwise— but that little girl 
who disobeys her mother, and goes abroad and gets inta 
wild company, and is rude, and soils and tears her clothes, 
joins ill-manners with ill-feeling and ill-looks ; she hears 
ill-language, she witnesses anger, hatred and malice ; she is 
provoked perhaps by ill-treatment and, is tempted to return 
evil for evil, and thus do the work of the devil, which she 
should renounce. When I promised all this in your name, I 
knew you could not do so without God's help ; so I promised 
you should learn the Lord's prayer, so that you might call 
on him every day in the very words that our Saviour gave 
us, and told us to say when we pray to him. That prayer 
means a great deal more than you might think, and if you 
will try to understand each word and each sentence, you will 
find it asks for all that we need to keep God's holy will and 
commandments. Try to think of the meaning of each word 
always when you say it, and God will help you to keep his 
holy will and conimandment for Jesus Christ's sake, "who re- 
deemed you and all mankind," by the "Holy Ghost who 
sanctifieth you and all the people of God." 

Now, my dear little girls, remember that every one has ta 
learn all they know, that we even have to learn to talk, and 
we must also learn what to believe. I promised that you 
should learn to believe all the articles of the christian faith 
contained in the Apostles creed, and when you get older I 
will give you the reason why the creed is to be believed. 
Now you are too young to have a reason for everything it is 
your duty to do. I suppose you obey your mother, and be- 
lieve all she says without a reason. I suppose yohr teacher 
does always give you a reason why you should believe what 
she teaches you. You are now in God's family, the church. 

C/. / I "■ I . •- * 


The church was made by God to teach and train his children 
so that they may learn their duty in this world as well as to 
become tit for Heaven when they die, and that is one reason 
why the church takes young children. It is God's school to 
teach them his ways. I promised to call on you to hear 
sermons, and ^^to learn all things that a christian ought to 
know and believe to his soul's health." I am very glad to 
see that you behave so much better in church than you used 
to do, or than many others do now. You should always try 
to understand all the services and take a part in them, and if 
you try, you will soon get so that you will understand the 
sermon and then you will not be tempted to look around and 
have your mind on something else. Eemember the school is 
not in the place of the church God made to teach old 
and young the way to do their duty and teach them the way 
to live with Him in Heaven, and so is Divine. When you 
recite the creed you say you believe in the Holy Catholic 
Church — Catholic, because universal and orthodox, and holy 
because it is the faith of the Bible, and so is for all time. But 
the Sunday School was made by man to help the minister 
teach the catechism, because the minister has not time to 
teach each one separately. The teachers have no authority 
to teach the meaning of everything in the Bible. That authori- 
ty was given the minister, when he was ordained ; hence the 
necessity of children attending sermons which I promised to 
call on you to do, and you are now a member of God's family, 
and should join public worship. The Bible says "out of the 
mouths of babes thou hast ordained." The catechism of 
the prayer book, explains the ordinance ordained by Christ 
himself. So I hope you will not put th^ school in the place 
of the Church. I notice many baptised children go to the 
school that seldom go to church, and most of people do not 
require it of their children. This is all wrong. Remember 
the church is OoWs own appointed way. In old times minis- 
ters catechised the children in church, and I think it is the 
best way for them 5 grown people that know nothing about 
the church will have a chance to learn. Your baptism will 
do you no good, if you ignore your part of the bargain, for 


that is the means. We are free agents and you can accept of 
the bargain that I found for you — that you learn all that a 
christian ought to believe according to that beginning. 

Mary Helm. 


CoNNERSViLLE, April 14th, 1880. 
To the Veterans of Texas — Oreeting: Again, I am with 
you in spirit. Forty-five years have not effaced from my 
memory the stirring times of 1835-6, when more lives were 
jeopardized by the hardship of leaving comfortable homes,, 
without animals to carry the infirm, the sick, and the help- 
less, and the absolute necessaries of life, than fell by the 
sword of the enemy. When groceries had to be left behind 
to make room for breadstuffs ; when despair was on every 
face; when no communication was kept up between the flee- 
ing multitude and our weak army — themselves refugees in 
the wilderness in the then Brazos bottoms ; and even the few 
who essayed to fortify at the mouth of the Brazos, had a 
suspicion that the army had been annihilated. So supreme 
was the suspicion, that the steam of the only boat was kept 
up when all but seven had gone to try and find the so-called 
army. My former husband, E. R. Wightman, was among the^ 
seven with one cannon to defend the steamboat, in which 
some had essaj^ed to make their escape, when the match 
was lit to fire the cannon, which demonstration caused the 
boat to return to its moorings, and thus matters stood a few 
days, when the news of the battle of San Jacinto changed 
the face of everything. This suspense to kno,ir the true 
state of things was more painful than defeat, especially to 
those in the so-called fort. General Fillesota, who headed 
the retreating Mexican army, had to write and publish a 
a pamphlet to defend himself, and it was translated into Eng- 
lish. He stated that his spies had discovered that there 
were 500 American soldiers at the mouth of the Brazos, and 
it was not safe to make an attack. This I read myself after 


my husband's story, as told to me as above. Of course no 
blame can be attached to our feeble army, when it is remem- 
bered that many of them had to return to their families, long 
distances, to help them to a place of protection, even to the 
eastern border of the State, where I was myself, and where 
such a multitude as might be compared to the Israelites 
when fleeing before Pharaoh's hosts. To add to our con- 
sternation, false reports greeted us that the Indians from the 
north would attack us, Mexicans on the west, water south 
and east, which made it seem more like our Hebrew breth- 
ren's retreat, only we lacked the Moses. Our negro servants 
were our protectors, for very few able-bodied white men 
were to be seen, but all kinds of conveyance, with poverty 
and want and despair on all sides, and thus we opened an 
empire to civilization and Christianity, which was born of 
blood and suffering. Will future generations remember and 
be thankful for this blessed land, the glory of all lands. 
And when you fcease to get your annual greeting, you may 
know that one more veteran has passed to the promised 
land and been gathered to her fathers. 

Mary S. Helm. 


Theory, reason, and experience convinced me of the supe- 
riority of the unpopular church. For, if we dispute the 
unanimous history of the church in \tB purest and best ages, 
we have no way to prove the Divinity of the Bible ; for we 
prove both by the enemies as well as friends of religion. 
But the shortest way to support self-made churches is to 
deny history. No one disputes the. history of Greece, or 
Eome, or England, that they kept the line of their kings or 
Presidents, or that they were capable of keeping a correct 
and truthful history with every transaction important to 
their validity or vitality; and we know that the Church for 
1500 years considered the Episcopacy important in its pure 
succession^ both for validity and vitality, and I might add 


legality also ; for there never was a time when they had it 
not. And as it was always guarded by having these conse- 
crators, there could be no danger, of losing the succession. 
Imagine twelve strands to a rope (as there were twelve 
apostles), multiplying by three for 1852 years, the same rope 
into so many strands, is a thing impossible, or even improba- 
ble; and that is the much despised succession. I feel dis- 
turbed that the boys will not read our small book. I feel in 
one sense of the word, that it is not a vain thing I ask them 
to do, that it is their life, not that it, or the church will save 
their souls, but will any one pretend to say there is ho dif- 
ference between truth and error? If our premises are wrong, 
deductions are wrong, and one error begets another, until 
we are brought to the necessity of denying history, and then 
there is but one step to infidelity. Whoever wrote to prove 
Christianity, that did not use history largely, and that as an- 
cient as Christianity itself ? One truth gained is worth all 
the speculations and probabilities and assertions of all the 
blind leaders of the blind, that ever unwittingly enlisted 
blindfolded (with false x)romises) under the banner of error 
and schism. I would ask them, can you disprove a mathe- 
matical demonstration ! Neither can they disprove what I 
knew they would accept as important for their own well being 
if they would read and hear the witness, in behalf of that 
church, which is called Christ's " body,'^ " bride," which is 
precious^ being bought with his blood. If we would be loyal 
citizens of our country, how could we better show a treason 
to that country than to go and set up a rival government, 
within a government. But men do this sometimes and im- 
prove the government; so they may if they can, for men 
make governments in all ages and all countries ; but not so 
the Church. God made the Church and He never changes it, 
only by new revelations as in the time of Adam, Abraham, 
Moses and Christ, and in 1st chapter of Acts, 2d vetse, we 
see that the Apostles carried it out. Human laws or canons 
about the polity of the Church, I admit,imen may change 
to suit different governments and ages of time; but the spir- 
itual, doctrinal, positive institution men cannot change with- 


out sin ; for they did not emanate from m^in, and it is not in 
his province to make changes in them, and because this doc- 
trine is insisted on, hence all the odium heaped on those that 
see God in history, and love the Church because it was made 
only by Him, and is a Divine and not human institution. 


Dear Friend: Your letter has just been received, and it 
is with emotions of pleasure that I hasten to answer it. My 
jiiece had written to me that her name was on the Methodist 
class-book, and I had replied, which I presume she has re- 
ceived before this. She has read too much to be anything 
else but an Episcopalian. The teachings of her whole life, 
namely, that the feelings and excitements are the rules by 
which we should be governed, is now the great ,error that 
keeps her from the *'old paths." She may see it eventually. 
I know how hard it is to give up an old error, one that we 
have received by tradition, which, perha])s, is the surest way 
to take deep root in the human heart; hence the necessity 
of putting the truth before the young, and nothing but the 
truth, and when that has full possession, there is no room 
for error. I would have them rooted and grounded in the 
faith once delivered to. the saints. I would have no new 
gospel, no new measure, no self-constituted body whose 
prayers are to prevail at 2i\\ ^*' anxious 2^e»c/t," though they 
might call on Him whom St. Paul preached. I would say 
to them, " Jesus I know and Paul I know but who art thouf 
St. John says, " Who is anti-Christ but he who denieth both 
the Father and the Son f Now, I think, by that rule I can 
prove that the Methodists are anti-Christ. For Christ says 
to his Apostles (and in speaking to them he speaks to their 
successors through all time), '' lie that despiseth me despis- 
eth Him that sent me;" so I think it a plain case that all 
that reject the Apostolic succession are anti-Christ by de- 


spising the Apostolic office. Yet I would not have yoa 
think that I coDdemn those that I know know no better, only 
I think it safe to search and see. It is not safe to take ,shel- 
ter too much in oar ignorance ; for, remember that those who 
crucified the Savior, and all who gave their voice against 
him, though they had the scriptures which told of him, yet 
were ignorant that it was he, and now the great majority are 
ignorant of His church although they, like the Jews, have 
the scriptures that tell them that his Church is one called 
'* His body," "His bride." In vain do the scriptures say, 
" Mark those that cause division and avoid them." In vain 
do they say, "a house divided against itself cannot stand ;" 
again, " Is Christ divided! Was Paul crucified for you?" I 
might ask, is Wesley crucified for them ! Alas, poor Wesley ! 
he has to father all of their sect, heresy and schism, when 
he again and again exhorted them not to leave 'God's churcht 
and told them, if they did, they were no followers of his ; that 
he feared that if they ever forsook the Church of God, He 
would forsake them ; and on his dying bed he said, ** Bless 
the Church !" It is true he helped to form a society to aid 
the Church, but never, no never, did he dream of substitut- 
ing it for the Church. But when he found that some of the 
would-be-" some " in this society had fondly dreamed of 
making a schism, he labored hard to prevent it. He pub- 
lished a tract from time to time, giving some twenty reasons 
why they should not leave the Church (and, bear in mind, 
he always said the Churchy) and from these views he never 
changed. And, as some of the fruits of dissent, I have heard, 
and every one else has heard from the Methodist pulpits, 
that Wesley was their venerable founder. Now, I cannot see 
that a falsehood is any the less a falsehood for being reiter- 
ated in a place called a pulpit. But such niiiserable shifts 
are resorted to for an excuse for schism ; and what would it 
avail if it were true ? could one man or one set of uninspired 
men make a church f It does seem to me the strangest thing 
that any one can be found to accept of such logic. I could 
fill a dozen pages to prove how false are the fruits of such 
dissent. I could prove it by the Christian Advocate^ a Meth- 


odist orgau which the General Conference is responsible for 
and appoints its editor, which is full of falsehoods (I can 
prove what I say), I could prove the fruits of the system 
by enumerating the losses I have sustained in pecuniary 
matters (for be it remembered, I have been cheated out of 
thousands of dollars by one who thought he was converted 
on his knees by hearing a negro woman pray,) by one who 
was decidedly a '' shouting Methodist,'' one who was sent 
for in the dead of night to pray with the dying, and one who 
would go into the country and "get up a revival,'' and in the 
meanwhile cheat the widow and the orphan. I could most 
emphatically prove their fruit by their hatred of God's 
church. My dear friend, let me say to you that nothing, in 
my humble opinion, can make amends for the mischief of dis- 
sent ; it makes followers boasters, proud, self-righteous ; they 
are wedded to their respective errors and not afraid to speak 
evil of dignitaries. My apology for this is, for Zion's sake,, 
I will not hold my peace. Mrs. Mary Helm. 


March 6th, 1853. 

My Dear Niece: 

* * * * Arguments in your behalf present them- 
selves on all occasions and in all places. Even in church to- 
day, is in great contrast to your Methodist mode of worship. 
Kow hear some of them. Why was it that the Ark of the 
Lord was so much cared for? even in those times when a^ 
visible manifestation might have been expected. And again, 
when in the most reasonable attitude, and with humble 
voice, we confessed that "we had done those, things that we 
ought not to have* done," I felt that "God was not in the 
whirlwind" but in the "still small voice ;" and when repeat- 
ing the doxology, I felt the reasonableness of such praise, 
after the authoritative pronunciation of "forgiveness of sins ta 

1(^8 »SC:RAPS of early TEXAS II18T0RY. 

all that truly repent," after repeating the form given by 
Christ himself. And when we read the psalms for the day, 
knowing they were written more than 3000 years ago for 
public worship, and always continued to this day, both by 
Jews and Christians, I could feel the force of the praise and 
prayer "paid or sung" with the "spirit and the understand- 
ing also," and so apply it to myself as common prayer, with- 
out making myself conspicuous (as talking in meeting). 
Knowing the psalms have constantly been thus used all the 
long ages of both Jews and Christians, till sect and schism 
had substituted inventions of their own in public worship, 
ending with doxology, thus acknowledging the Trinity, and 
I could not but think those Unitarians, so numerous among 
all those who have renounced the church, would not have 
done so, if they had kept in the "old paths." And then my 
attention was directed to the wisdom of the Church's eccle- 
siastical year. This being the season of Lent, a chapter of 
the Old Testament pointed to the sufferings of Christ and the 
New Testament showed the fulfillment of that prophecy, 
while between the lessons we recite the Te Deum, where the 
creed is acknowledged in song, to be "said or sung." Tradi- 
tion says that this beautiful hymn was composed by St. 
Ambrose and St. Augustine — the latter of these eminent 
fathers, after having been long bewildered by the errors of 
a sect took uj) his abode in the city, of which the venerable 
Ambrose was the bishop. Moved by his preaching, and at 
length converted by his powerful arguments, sought bap- 
tism at his hands. Some writers report that the hymn was 
the spontaneous effusion of these holy men, as they were 
proceeding in solemn procession to the font; others say, 
Pliny had reference to this hymn, when he reported to the 
Emperor, that the "Christians rise before day and sing a 
hymn to Christ as God." The book of common prayer 
rightly divides the word of truth — each Sunday has its les- 
sons appropriate to the day and division of the Church's 
year, and thus taking in the whole counsel of God, by "rightly 
dividing the word of truth" — the words of sound doctrine. 
The Apostles creed is said standing, because we are soldiers 


of Cnrist, and soldiers stand when ,on drill. There should 
be no spectators, for it is " common worship.^^ It was when 
praying to Baal, that the prophet told them to cry aloud for 
he might be asleep. In the litany there is not a word or 
want that is not embraced. No affliction, but can find vent 
for his burdened heart. We pray to be delivered from heresy 
and schism — from those who are in error and are deceived ; 
for all that are distressed in mind, body or estate. I hope 
the books I have sent you, have the tendency to restrain 
you from warming up your devotions by ''strange fires." 

Be it remembered that if you go with the multitude, under 
some circumstances you might be a Papist or even a Mo- 
hammedanj without looking into the reason, history and evi- 
dence of things. There is a way to find out about all these 
things^ but the Methodist system is such, they are bound to 
remain ignorant; they are made to believe and feel that they 
are more holy than others, not by their fruits, but by their 
feelings J and why, say the3', should they examine any further, 
" Their religion is good enough for them." Then again, lest 
they should have a little leisure to look into the history of 
all tha^» has gone before, they are required to spend all the 
time that can possibly be spared from their daily vocations 
in attending the various meetings — class, prayer, quarterly, 
protracted — sometimes for eight weeks. And should a young 
man wish to read in order to become a preacher, they chalk 
out his work from month to month, with such poison as to 
confirm every erroneous notion he has imbibed from his 
former teaching. I have had a Methodist preacher a tenant 
in part of my house for one year, and have had many a talk 
with him, showing me all the catalogue of books that they 
are required to read and remember. One book was Lord 
King, denouncing the Apostolic succession, and there they 
stop, while history shows that Lord King became convinced 
to the contrary, and gave an ecclesiastical living to the man 
who wrote against his book. History shows that John 
Wesley was not always of one mind. I will give you some 
historical facts about Mr. John Wesley at some other time, 
also a copy ol Dr. Coke's application to our first bishops for 


Episcopal ordination, promising them that all the men he had 
ordained, should be ordained again by our Bishops^ if they 
would make him Bishop. Bishops in the church never nomi- 
nate themselves, and when he could not become a lawful 
bishop, he went to England and applied to Mr. Wilberforce 
to be made bishop for the East Indies, and requested not to 
make known his request if it failed of being accomplished, 
but after Mr. Wilberforce's death the letter was found 
a,mong his papers. 

You write you are convinced that the "Episcopal Church 
was the first and true Church from which all other churches 
sprang," and that you felt disgusted at the flimsy arguments 
of which you are constantly hearing. You seem to think, by 
such an expression, that all these sects are churches. Now, 
you know that each thing in nature brings forth after its 
kind, both vegetable and animal. And we find that this same 
** True Church" is compared to the vegetable and animal king- 
doms. You remember the " blade, the ear and the full corn 
in the ear."* Again, a "seed becoming a great tree," and 
again, it is compared to a "living body.'' Now, we know 
that a part of the human body cannot be separated and live, 
much more propagate itself. So your separatist cannot be a 
part of that "one body," neither do they pretend it, but 
claim their authority from their "inward feelings." You 
<say you are alone in your sentiments, with none to sympa- 
thize with you. Do you not expect to y>ass the dark valley 
and shadow of death alone f In a matter of eternal interest 
must you look around to see whether a positive and Divine 
institution is going to be popular! Our christian charter 
gives us no such promise; but, on the contrary, it says : 
" Man's foes are of his own house," and " Blesssed are they 
that are persecuted for righteousness' sake." Next you be- 
come satisfied that the Church believed that baptism is eon- 
version. So because you cannot understand a doctrine of 
the Church, or, in other words, because a Church clergyman 
€ould not understand your notions of excitement, they for- 
sooth do not believe in conversion. To know what the 
Church does believe, read your prayer-book, founded by the 


^*uoble Army of Martyrs," of whom the world was not worthy, 
ages on ages before the modern inventions of anxious benches 
were thought of, and you must bear in mind that in the Dark 
Ages they did not so much take from the liturgy as add to, 
which our Eeformers of the fifteenth century corrected. How 
do you know how much you might have been blessed had you 
been " born of water" through God's own authorized embas. 
sador ? Forget your teaching and read your Bible — what it 
means by being born of water and the spirit — water first. 
Bead my letters on the subject and the Baptismal service and 
Bible lessons in connection, which I have quoted at length 
in full in former letters, sometimes called " The Washing of 
Eegeneration," " Saved by Baptism," "Arise and be Baptised 
and Wash Away thy Sins." Since I wrote the above 
I have read the Methodist Discipline, and there I find the 
doctrine for which I am contending. I always knew that 
the Presbyterian Confession of Faith acknowledged it. I 
can find it in every theological book I ever read, no matter 
by whom written. Over fifty years ago, I remember hearing 
two Methodist ministers talking on the subject (for I was 
often called to their part of the house when I had one lor a 
tenant). One said to the other: " Have you noticed that in 
old times they understood baptism different from what we 
do now?" I took the libferty to reply that, there is one 
church that never changes, and referred them to Clark's 
Commentary on the subject of Baptismal Eegeneration, in 
Titus iii., 5th verse. They read but made no reply. I re- 
peat it, that your notions and that of your cotemporaries are 
younger than the Methodist Discipline, younger than the 
Presbyterian Confession of Faith, younger than the Lutheran 
Concordance, younger than all that wrote prior to the nine- 
teenth century. Hence, Baptism is compared to birth, which 
puts the subject into new privileges he had not had before, 
yet had life. 

" A few kind words of faith and prayV, 
A few bright drops of holy dew, 
Shall work a wonder there 
Ear th*8 children never knew." 
Then, again, Marriage is compared to Christ and the Church 


and the Bible calls it a " Mystery." The Church is compared 
to the bride and Christ the bridegroom ; also, compared to 
a living body, Christ the head ; to a hoase ; to a tree. You 
know these emblems of the Church show it cannot be divided 
and live; hence, but one Church by these comparisons. 
Eather than save man by any means outside the Church, even 
an angel could not tell Cornelius, but sends St. Peter, and at 
St. PauPs conversion, the Lord only says '' I am Jesus," and 
sends Ananias to tell him what to do, viz. : "Arise and wash 
away thy sins " (water first), and he that instituted the or- 
dinance blessed it, and Paul received his sight. Thus the 
Bible calls it " baptismal regeneration," yet St, Paul says " I 
keep my body under, lest after preaching to others I myself 
might be a castaway." So the Church teaches this earthly 
state is a state of probation, which the Methodists also be- 
lieve. Our blessed Saviour calls baptism " being born of the 
water and the spirit," placing water first. St. Paul calls it 
" the washing of regeneration and the renewing of the Holy 
Ghost," placing the water first. In another place he says : 
"They that have been baptised unto Christ have put on 
Christ," when baptism is named first. And we read that : 
"The Pharisees rejected the counsel of God against them- 
selves, not being baptised." And if we had nothing but St. 
Peter's sermon, in Acts, chap, ii., one would think it sufli- 
cient for all practical purposes, to-wit: "Eepent and be 
baptised every one for the remission of sins (water first) and 
ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost ; for the promise 
is unto you and your children and to all that are afar oft." 
" And the Lord added to the Church daily such as should be 
saved." Do not expect a mysterious change at once ; the 
Divine influence is compared to the wind. " The wind blow- 
eth where it listeth ; thou hearest the sound thereof, but 
canst not tell whither it cometh or whither it goeth. So is 
every one that is born of the spirit." Divine grace is also 
compared to the vegetable kingdom : " First the blade, then 
the ear, then the full corn in the ear." And remember " The 
Churches the ground and pillar of the truth." 

Mary S. Helm. 




******* You write : " We differ iu religious 
sentimeut as widely as the territory that separates us." 

Xow, did it never occur to you that your sentiments might 
have been the result of your early teachings by those who 
themselves were very ignorant and those who never availed 
themselves of the help of the christian fathers in the inter- 
pretation of the scriptures iu the earliest and purest ages, 
when the disciples of the Apostles were still living? and all 
along in the ages of persecution, when to be a christian was 
to be a martyr — long ages before the Bishop of Eome as- 
sumed temporal power. You play into the hands of the 
Eoman Church when you ignore the christian fathers. Truth 
will always bear investigation ; to ignore the truth of history 
strengthens the Eoman belief, who argue that the end jus- 
tifies the means. Hence that large book by a Eoman priest 
called "The End of Controversy," misrepresenting history, 
and none of the modern sects knew any better — for instance, 
our old school teacher long before I learned about the church 
from literature thrown by the waves of the ocean on the 
coast of Texas. He told me that his j^rejudice against the 
Eoman Catholics had entirely given way by reading Millman's 
^'End of Controversy." I found it not safe to read only one 
side of history, after I found I had been wrongly informed 
so many times on different subjects, and so I became doubt- 
ful on almost everything I had learned in my school days ; 
and as I always had time to read and not much taste for 
society, I made it a business to review many things I had 
learned in childhood and youth, whereas you had the care of 
children, and if you had desired it, you had not the right 
kind of books to show you the other side of the story, and 
thus tradition became law and truth to you. But to my story. 
An old gentleman from J^ew York came to live in this place, 



and his life had been cheered by the consolation of the 
worship and teachings of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 
-At that time we had no clergyman here and he sought the 
society of church people. He always brought me something 
to read, among the rest three large volumes of an answer to 
Millman's "End of Controversy," by our venerable presiding 
Bishop, Hopkins, long since gone to rest, but I had made his 
acquaintance by reading church papers for years, and so I was 
prepared to accept all that he said, and would you believe it, 
he took the whole book of Millman's and reviewed each his- 
torical quotation, showing that the great majority of Mill- 
man's quotations were wrong, one sided and calculated to 
deceive the common reader, and so the one volume of Mill- 
man, was enlarged into three by Hopkins. I take it that in 
this age of ours, no one is left to themselves to form an 
opinion of the Church and duty, but a system is taught them 
by the so-called preachers and this teaching has its inHuence 
in shaping our views as we read the bible. Never did I 
cease to be tormented with the Calvinistic doctrine of elec- 
tion, till I had the blessing of the church in holy baptism. 
** He that doeth my will shall know the doctrine," 
and then the doctrine '* Once in grace, always in grace," 
as your sect believes and I once thought was so, as well 
as Calvinistic election ; and all the while I was waiting for a 
miraculous conversion as being taught by those that taught 
that hard doctrine of election. After I was willing 
to take the teaching of the church, I was troubled no 
more, only taught to keep my body under, "to do to all men 
as I would they should do to me," and I found that St. Paul 
was afraid he might be a castaWay after teaching others. 
Thus I learned by the church that all christians are on pro- 
bation^ and that the church service is so rich in instruction 
that it is really a comment on the bible. And the more I 
learn about the Liturgy, the more I admire it, for I find the 
very first liturgy extant was by St. James, who was the 
presiding Bishop of Jerusalem, who pronounced his judg- 
ment on the first council held in Jerusalem. You remember 
the subject about the Jews requiring the laws of Moses, see 


chapter xv of Acts, especially 19th verse, showing that 
James presided. I have an account in an old history of the 
Eastern Christians, how politics had separated nations for 
several centuries, and it was found by travelers that each 
nation had the same Liturgy, said to be given and made by 
St. James, which proved to be exactly alike, and so it is 
found that all ancient Christendom had always had forms of 
worship. Buchanan who was the first traveler that ex- 
plored the Bast after the discovery by the Portuguese in the 
sixteenth century, found a copy of St. Thomas' Liturgy. I 
will write you what one of the reformers on the continent 
says about the Puritans in the time of Cromwell. 

I have read more church history since I saw you than I 
ever read before, and the more I read the more I am con- 
vinced of the cause of indifference as stated above, and also 
of the dishonesty of the different sects and parties. For 
nstance, it has always been kept from you and most of peo- 
ple in this country that since the reformation, all the Pro- 
testants ignored a form of prayer or liturgy for some one 
hundred and fifty years, so said by those sects. The Greek 
and Eastern churches, they do not speak of, because every 
one knows they were never under the dominion of the 
Bishop of Rome, and always have and do yet, " use the 
Ancient Liturgy without the idolatry and superstition of 
Rome. I was always taught to believe that only a few of 
the reformers used forms of prayer, and that Cromwell, and 
the Long Parliament and Puritan parties, pretended to imi- 
tate their brethren on the continent, by ignoring the Liturgy 
of the' English Church (whose descendants were the Puri- 
tans). You know the Presbyterians always claimed John 
Knox — now hear what he wrote in 1574, just twenty years 
after the power of the Pope was abolished in England, by 
the united effort of Church and State, for it took both to do it. 

Knox says, God gave such strength to that Rev. Father in 
God, "Thomas Cranmer, to cut the knots of devilish super- 
stition,'' etc., etc. And in 1566 he says, "We can speak with 
truth whomsoever we offend, there is no realm where the 
sacrament is in like purity ; for all the others, how 8iQjc.<i.^<^ 


soever the doctrine be that by some is taught, retain in their 
churches and in the members thereof, some footsteps of 
anti-Christ and dregs of popery. But we, all praise to God^ 
have nothing within our churches that ever flowed from 
that man of sin." Bishops, therefore, was not Popery in the 
mind of Knox. And again 1559, he wrote from Geneva, 
from which place and occasion he should have condemned 
Episcopacy, if he did not believe in it — hear what he says: 
''Let no man be charged in preaching of Christ above that a 
man may do, I mean that your Bishoprics (we would say 
dioceses) be so divided, that of every one, as there is now^ 
for the most part be made ten — that so in every city and 
great town there may be placed a godly learned man, with 
so many joined with him for preaching and instruction as 
shall be thought sufficient for the bounds of his charge.'^ 
Knox was not only for retaining bishops, but for multiplying 
them. But in 1041, in Cromwell's time, all the above and 
much more was left out of the ''London Edition." The Par- 
liament under Charles I,, a short time previous to the revo- 
lution, abolished the prayer book and substituted in its 
place what they called " The Directory to be observed in 
all the churches within this Kingdom." Be it observed by 
what follows, that they did not carry their opinions as far as 
their descendants in the nineteenth century who enjoined the 
minister to read the scriptures in public, and prohibited him 
from expounding till he had got done. They published /orm^ 
before and after sermons. They prescribed rules for the 
management of sermons. They enjoined some other forms 
for the occasion — such as matrimony, visitation of the sick, 
fasting and thanksgiving, and recommended the use of the 
Lord's Prayer. Their descendants, however, have thrown oft 
every restraint, have to some extent banished the public 
reading of the scriptures, abolished the public use of the 
Lord's Prayer. [Note — Not so much now as fifty years ago]. 
I recollect when I was a young girl, the son of a church 
clergyman, asked the son of a Presbyterian clergyman, why 
his father never used the Lord's Prayer 1 The answer was, 
*'he could pray better;^'' he but made the extempore gift the all 


in all. Thus the enlightened piety of America in the nine- 
teenth century has outrun in the course of its extrava- 
j^ance, the maddest faction of the maddest age of English 
history The piety of the old Puritans had so much regard 
for decency as to clothe itself in a few scanty forms. That of 
their descendants in America has attained to the perfection 
of nudity. The Puritans boasted of their agreement with 
Eeformed Churches on the continent, and it has been echoed 
by their descendants from that time to this ; how true, how- 
ever, we shall show. "Let all the world know," says Derrell, 
himself a minister of a Eeformed Church on the continent, 
"that there never was, nor is yet, any one Eeformed Church 
on the continent, that has only a directory and not a hoolc of 
common prayer for the public worship of God." "I do not 
speak this," he adds, "only by conjecture, for I have either 
used these set forms myself, being a minister, or have seen 
them in print, translated into Latin from the several lan- 
guages, or ^ I have been so informed by divers members of 
their churches upon my enquiring." The writer then gives 
a list of the names of those writers who have acknowledged 
the same, "one of whom," says he, "one hundred and forty 
years ago when the separation was made from Eome, and 
the church people coming out of Babylon cast off the Pope's 
tyranny, and purged the same of superstition and idolatry " 
— and all such things as were burdensome and had con- 
tributed little or nothing towards the edification of the 
Church. Accordingly in several places set forms and holy 
liturgies were framed and instituted. Those simple and pure, 
then enumerating all the reformed churches of Europe, dif- 
fering as little as i)ossible from the ancient set form of the 
primitive Church. These set forms have hitherto met with 
happiness and profit, each of them in their several nations 
and districts, till very lately there sprang up in England a 
morose, scrupulous, fastidious and superstitious generation^ 
who have thought for manj'^ reasons, and those very light 
and almost of no account at all, not only to blame, but to 
wholly abrogate and abolish the liturgy used hitherto in 
their churches, together with the whole hierarchical govern- 


ment of their Bishops, and substituted for the liturgy their 
" Directory,'' as they call it. This may suffice to show us 
what the Eeformed Churches thought of dissenters. But it 
may be asked, were all of the Eeformed Churches obliged to 
use their forms ? Hear what Derrell says — '*! was above 
eight years a minister in one of said churches, and though 
my occasions have called me into most of the provinces, and 
I have been pYesent in several of their synods, I am certain 
that I have used always their set forms, not only because I 
was willing to do so, but because I was bound to it by their 
injunction. I have seen other ministers do the same, and I 
am sure it is imposed on every one of them to do the same* 
And if every one of them should happen to be so unwise,, 
or so peevish as to blame and reject them, or so self-con- 
victed with his extemporaneous gift of prayer as to presume 
to begin divine service with extemporaneous compositions,, 
or other kind of prayer of an hour long^ instead of that short 
one (confession of sins) which they use always, and no other 
to begin with, as it would not be suffered." He then gives 
an instance of a minister being subjected to discipline for 
not rehearsing the creed after morning prayer. The only part 
of the services for which no form is presented, is the short 
prayer before the sermon, but he adds, ''the clergy never 
availed themselves of this discretion, but each had a form 
written by himself and strictly adhering to it without 
change or variety." Indeed the rejection of the National 
Liturgy in England, excited general surprise on the conti- 
nent. *'I am surprised to learn," says an eminent continental 
divine, '*that some are found in England, that are wholly 
averse to any set form of liturgy to be uniformly observed 
throughout the kingdom. Among us it is nowhere ad- 
mitted to reject the use of the liturgy which was made by 
Calvin." History informs us that in the days of Queen 
Elizabeth, a Eomaa spy by the name of Cummings assures 
the Pope that his spiritual prayers (public extempore), had 
taken so much with the people, that the Church of England 
was become as odious as the mass, whereupon the Pope 
gave him two hundred ducats." That was the first time that 


such prayers were ever used in public, but it took one hun- 
dred and fifty years to abolish the Prayer Book by law, and 
then they gave some scanty forms in its place. In twenty 
years, however, it was restored again, and has undergone no 
change since in its spiritual parts, as the preface will show. 

Calvin and his co:Workers advocated Episcopacy, and 
Calvin wrote to the Duke who was Lord Protector of Eng- 
land during the minority of Edward VI., to obtain Episco- 
pal consecration, as they could not get it at home, but one 
of the Pope^s emissaries intercepted the letter, and Calvin 
supposed an insult intended because he did not get an 
answer, and made a virtue of "necessity, and now his descen* 
dants stoutly fight Episcopacy, and it has to be fairly on the 
defensive in this nineteenth century. But you will see by 
the workings of all those systems that have thrown it off by 
reading those books I send you. 

Mary S. Helm. 





[reasons for not leaving the church of engeand.] 

[Mr. John Wesley had the following tract published in all 
his circuit from time to time in the various provinces where 
he had established the lay preachers, and never would per- 
mit them to hold service at the same hour as the Church 
service and at no time to administer the saeraments.l 

1. Because it would be a contradiction of the solemn declar- 
ation which we have made in all manner of ways — in preach- 
ing, in print and in private conversation. 

2. Because on this as well as on many other accounts, it 
would give huge occasion of offence to those who seek and 
desire occasion, to all the enemies of God's truth. 

3. Because it would exceedingly prejudice against us many 
who fear, yea, who love God, and thereby hinder their 
receiving so much, perhaps any further benefit from our 

4. Because it would hinder multitudes of those who neither 
fear nor love God from hearing us at all. 

5. Because it would be throwing balls of wild-fire among 
those that are now quiet in the land. We are sweetly united 
together in love. We mostly speak and think the same thing. 


But this would give occasion for inconceivable strife and con- 
tention between those who left and those that remained — nay, 
between those very persons who remain who are inclined one 
way or the other. 

G. Because to form the plan of a new church would require 
infinite time and care which might be far more profitably 
bestowed, with much more wisdom and greater depth and 
extensiveness of thought than any of us are masters of. 

7. Because from some having barely entertained a'distant 
thought of this, evil fruits have already followed ; such a 
prejudice against the clergy in general and aptness to believe 
ill of them ; contempt, not without disguise of bitterness, of 
clergymen as such, and a sharpness of langtiage towards the 
whole order entirely unbecoming either gentlemen or chris- 

8. Because we have melancholy instances of this, even 
Uefore our eyes. Many have, in our memory, left the Church 
and formed themselves into distinct bodies, and certainly 
«omeof them from a persuasion that they could do God more 
service. But have any separatists ever prospered ? Have 
they been more holy or more useful than they were before f 

9. Because by such a separation we shall not only throw 
away the peculiar glory God has given us, that we do and 
suffer all things for our brethren's sake, though the more we 
love the less we be loved, but should act in direct contradic- 
tion to that very end to which we believe God has raised 
us np. 

10. Because the chief design of His providence, we believe, 
in sending ns out, is undoubtedly to quicken our brethren ; 
and the first message of all our preachers is to the "lost 
sheep of the Church of England." Now, would it not be a 
fatal contradiction to this design to separate from the Church f 
These things being considered (we cannot apprehend whether 
it be lawful or not) that it is unlawful to ns, were it only on 
this ground, that it is by no means expedient. 

11. It has indeed been objected that till we do separate 



we cannot be a compact, united body. You mean by that 
expression a body distinct from all others, and we have no 
desire to be so. 

12. We took upon ourselves, not as the authors and ring- 
leaders of a particular sect or party ; it is farthest from our 
thoughts ; but messengers of God to those who are christians 
in name but heathen in practice and life, to call them back 
to that from which they have fallen to real genuine Chris- 

13. We look upon the clergy as part of our brethren, but 
' as that part whom God by His adorable providence has 

called to be watchmen over the rest, for whom, therefore, 
they are to give a strict account. If these men neglect their 
important charge; if they do not watch over them with all 
their power, they will be of all men the most miserable, and 
so are entitled to our deepest compassion ; so that to feel 
and, much more, to express either contempt or bitterness 
towards them betrays an utter ignorance yourselves of the 
spirit we especially should be of. 

14. Might it not be a prudential rule for every Methodist 
preacher not to frequent any dissenting meetings! though 
we blame none who have always been accustomed to it. But 
if we do this, certainly our people will. Now this is exactly 
separating from the Church. If, therefore, it is at least not 
expedient, neither is this expedient. 

15. Indeed we may attend our assembly and the Church, 
too, because they are at different hours; but we cannot 
attend both the meetings and the Church if they are at the 
same hours. 

16. If it be said : ^4]ut at the Church we are fed with chaff, 
whereas at the meetings we have wholesome food." We 
answer: First, the prayers of the Church are not chaff, they 
are substantial food for any that are alive to God; second, 
the Lord's Supper is not chaff, but wholesome food for all 
who have pure and upright hearts. 

17. Yea, in almost all the sermons we hear many great 


and important truths, and whoever has a spiritual discern- 
ment may easily separate the chaff from the wheat therein. 
How little is the case mended at the meetings ! 

18. Either the preachers are new-lights men denying the 
Lord that bought them and overturning His gospel from the 
very foundation, or they are predestinarians, and so preach 
predestination or final perseverance, more or less. 

19. If we continue in the Church, not by chance or want of 
thought but ui^)on solid and well-weighed reasons, then we 
should never speak contemptuously of the Church or of 
anything pertaining to the Church. In some sense it is the 
mother of all who have been brought up therein. 

20. In order to cut off all jealousies and suspicion from 
our friends and hope from our enemies, or of our having a 
desire to separate from the Church, it would be well for. every 
Methodist preacher who has no scruples concerning it to at- 
tend the service of the Church as often as conveniently he 

21. And the more we attend the more we love it, as con- 
stant experience shows ; on the contrary, the longer we ab- 
stain from it the less desire we have to attend it. 


Some years ago, when the celebrated converted Jew, Dr. 
Joseph Woeff was traveling among the nations of the east, 
he was puzzled to answer the inquiries of those who wished 
to know by what authority he preached the gospel. " This 
question," he says, " ' What Bishop sent you out V was ad- 
dressed to me by the great Bogas, the late Patriarch of the 
Armenian nation at Constantinople ; the great Hermes, Arch- 
bishop of the Armenian nation at Tiflis ; and by the whole 
body of bishops at Ptsah Miazin, the celebrated convent at 
the pool of Mount Ararat ; by the Syrian Patriarch in Meso- 
potamia by the Coptic bishops ; by the Greek patriarch at 


Constantinople; and by the Eouian Catholic Bisliop of Bag- 
dad. When 1 replied to them, ' my internal voice sent me 
forth/ the answer I received was, ' Moses heard the voice of 
God on Mount lloreb, but God himself deemed it to be nec- 
essary to endow him with the gift of miracles [Ex. viii.], in 
order that Pharaoh might be forced to acknowledge him as 
the extraordinary embassjidor; and the ordinary ministers 
of God, the Levites, had to receive their commission from 
Moses; and Christ made the same provision in his Church. 
He imparted the gift of miracles to the Apostles, in sending 
them forth ; but they instituted bishops by the laying on of 
hands, and charged them to follow up that manner in consti- 
tuting ministers.' '' — [Titus i. 5.] 

^^ If yoUy Joseph Woeff, are an extraordinary minister, prove 
it by miracles ; if an ordinary one, tcho laid hands on you f 
Your internal voice is evidence to yon, not to ns,^"^ 

Dr. Woeff adds : " The very fact that all the eastern 
churches, without one single exception, have bishops, priests 
and deacons, and the very fact that the Presbyterian church 
is unknown, is to me a sufficient proof that Episcopacy is of 
Divine origin, and that the doctrine of Apostolic succession 
is a scriptural doctrine." 

I have alluded to this striking incident in ihe life of Dr. 
Woeff as having a bearing on something which happened 
during the career of Bishop White. According to the rules 
of the Church, which have been handed down from the be- 
ginning, none but bishops can ordain; and, therefore, those 
who claim to be bishops, or priests, or deacons, all must 
be able to show from what Bishop their authority has been 
derived. When the Rev. John Wesley, who was a priest of 
the Church of England, began that great work of reviving 
the slumbering energies of the Church, which at last ended 
in the departure of his followers from the true fold, under 
the name of Methodists, he had no idea that such a deplora. 
ble separation would be the result. 

At a late period of his life, he sent out two preachers to 
America to look after the welfare of Methodism in this great 


country, and, from the nature of their offices, were called 
superintendents. He knew that he, being only a presbyter, 
could not make them bishops, and they were well aware of 
it themselves. 

These two preachers, Coke and Asbury, accordingly came 
over as plain superintendents; but after awhile they began 
to allow themselves to be addressed as bishops, although 
they had just as much right to lay claim to be kings or em- 
perors. When Mr. Wesley heard of all this, he was much 
astonished, and wrote to Mr. Asbury after this manner : 

" In one point, my dear brother, I am afraid both the doctor 
and you differ from me. I study to be littJey you study to be 
(jreatf I creep , you strut along. I found a school ^ you a college. 
Nay, and call it after your own names. Oh, beware ! Do 
not seek to be something ! Let me be nothing and Christ be 
all in all. 

" One instance of this, your greatness, has given me great 
concern. How can you — how dare you — suffer yourself to 
be called Bishop f I shudder ! I start at the very thought ! 
Men may call me a Jcnave^ or 2b fool ^ a rascal^ a scoundrel , and 
I am content; but they shall never, by my consent, call me a 
bishop ! For my sake, for God's sake, for Christ's sake, put 
a full end to this ! Let the Presbyterians do what they please, 
but let the Methodists know their calling better." This was 
in 1788. [Life of Bishop White, by Dr. Norton, pp. 108-111. 

Dr. Coke, in 1791, wrote a letter to Bishop White, seeking 
a union with the American Church for the Methodists, and 
adding his testimony to Mr. Wesley's against a separation. 
And in 1813 Dr. Coke wrote a most importunate letter to the 
distinguished William Wilberforce, begging him to use his 
influence to have him appointed Bishop to India. 

Since Dr. Coke sought Episcopal consecration from the 
American Bishops, and from the English Bishops, he could not 
have considered himself already a bishop. And having failed 
in both applications, he never was a bishop. Mr. Wesley, 
so far from thinking himself a bishop, would not even allow 
anyone to address him in that title, and as he lived and died 



a. presbyter of the Church of England, how can there be any 
bishops in the Methodist denomination ! And without a 
bishop, ^there is no church, according to the testimony of 
the early Fathers. Q. E. D. 

Mr. Charles Wesley says : 

*' I think myself bound in dutj' to add my testimony to my 
brother's. His twelve reasons against our ever separating 
from the Church of England are mine also. I subscribe to 
them with all' my beart. Only with regard to the tirst, I am 
quite clear, that it is neither expedient or lawful for me to 
separate. And I never had the least inclination or tempta- 
tion so to do. My affection for the Church is as strong as 
ever; and I clearly see my calling, which is to live and die 
in her communion. This, therefore, I am determined to do, 
the Lord being my helper. — Charles Wesley." [Wesley's 
Works. Y. Y. ; Waugh & Mason, 1832. Vol. vii., pp. 293-8. 

Twenty years after, in 1778, he says in a letter : 
" The original Methodists were all of the Church of Eng- 
land; and the more awakened they were, the more zealous 
they adhered to it in every point, both of doctrine and dis- 
cipline. Hence we inserted in the first rules of our society : 
* They that leave the Church leave us.' And this we did, 
not as a point of prudence, hut as a point of conscience. * * * 
I, myself, find more life in the Church prayers than in any 
formal extempore prayers of dissenters. ]S^ay, I find more 
profit in sermons on either good tempers, or good works, 
than in what are vulgarly called gospel sermons. That term 
has now become a mere cant word, I wish none of our so- 
ciety would use it. It has no determinate meaning. Let 
but a pert self-sufficient animal, that has neither sense nor 
grace, bawl out something about Christ, or his blood, or 
justification by faith, and his hearers cry out, ' What a fine 
gospel sermon !' Surely, the Methodists have not so learned 
Christ.'' [Wesley's Works, Vol, til, p. 242.) 


Both the Weslejs and Coke were presbyters of the Church 
of England, professedly devoted to her cause. To be a Metho- 
dist was not to leave the church ; none of them ever dreamed 
of such a thing ; but the elder Wesley had been a mission- 
ary in America, and he took on himself to alter the book of 
Common Prayer for the use of the Church of England in 
America, and the church clergy sent missionaries from Eng- 
land, whose oath of allegiance prevented them from joining 
the army in this country and they were glad to return to 
England, so that when Wesley sent his fellow-laborer. Coke, 
to the country, our church folks were at that very time 
asking ordination for our first Bishop, but politics prevented 
it, and so he went to Scotland and got consecrated. All this 
took time, and Coke came over as superintendent of the 
church in the States, where he found a church wjthont a min- 
ister. The church always requires a consecrator. Coke was 
dissatisfied with his office. . So as soon as we had our new 
Bishop, Cuke applies for ordination; but remember that 
Bishops never nominate themselves. 


Richmond, April 24th, 1791. 
To Bishop White — Eight Reverend Sir: Permit me to in- 
troduce a letter on your time, upon a subject of great im. 
portance. You I believe are aware that I was brought up in 
the Church of England, and have been ordained a Presbyter of 
that church. For many years I was prejudiced even, I think, 
to bigotry in favor of it, but through a variety ot causes o^. 
incidents, which would be tedious or useless to mention 
my mind was exceedingly biased on the other side of the 
question. In consequence of this, I am not sure but I went 
farther in the separation of our church in America^ than 
Mr. Wesley, from whom I received my commission, did 


inteud. He did iodeed solemnly iDvest me as far as lie had 
a right so to'do with'Episcopal authority, but did not intend, 
I think, that an entire separation should take place. He being 
pressed by our friends on this side the water for ministers 
to administer the sacraments, (there being no clergy of the 
Church of England then in the States), went further than 
he would have gone if he had foreseen some events which fol- 
lowed. And this I am certain of, that he is now sony for the 
reparation. But what can be done for a reunion, which I much 
wish forf And to accomplish which, Mr. Wesley, I have no 
doubt, would use his influence to the utmost. The affection 
of a very considerable number of the preachers, and most of 
the people [are very strong towards him, notwithstanding 
the excessive ill-usage he received from a few. 

My interest also is not small, and both his and mine would 
readily be used to the utmost to accomplish that, to us, very 
desirable object, if a readiness were shown by the Bishops 
of the Protestant Episcopal to receive and reinstate. 

After [some statistical statements showing the numerical 
strength he could bring out of schism, by the measure he 
proposed, and attending to some objections which he fears 
might thwart his^wishes. "My desire of a reunion is so sin- 
cere and earnest, that these difficulties almost make me 
tremble. And yet something must be done before the death 
of Mr. Wesley,*^otherwi8e I shall despair of success, for 
though my influence a^mong the Methodists in these States 
as well as in England, I doubt not, is increasing, yet Mr. 
Asbury whose influence I know is very capital, will not 
easily comply, nay I know he will be exceedingly averse to 
it. In Europe where some steps had been taken tending to 
a separation, all is at an end. Mr. Wesley is a determined 
enemy of it, and I have lately borne an open and successful 
testimony against it. Shall I be favored with a private in- ' 
terview with you in Philadelphia f In the meantime permit 
me Avith great respect to subscribe myself, right reverend sir, 

Your obedient servant in Christ, 

Thomas Coke. 

NoTK.— Mr. Wesley died the March before, but so .sh)W was comnninicntion that 
they had not heard of it in Aineriea. 



Philadelphia, May 14th, 1791. 
Eight Reverend Father in God — Bishop Sedhury — Bight 
Reverend Sir: From your well known character, I am going 
to open my mind to you on a subject of great importance. 
Being educated a member of the Church of England from 
my earliest infancy ; being ordained of that church, and 
having taken the degrees in arts and two degrees in civil 
law in the University of Oxford, I am almost a bigot in its 
favor. When I first joined that great and good man, Jothn 
Wesley, which is fourteen years ago, and for five or six years 
after my union with Mr. Wesley, I remained fixed in my at- 
tachment to the Church of England. But afterwards for 
many reasons, which it would be tedious and useless to men- 
tion, I changed my sentiments and promoted a separation 
from it as far as my influence reached. Within these two 
years, I am come back again ; my love for the Church of 
England has returned. I think I am attached to it on a ground 
much more rational, and consequently much less likely to be 
shaken than formerly. I have many a time run into error, 
but to be ashamed of confessing my error, when convinced 
of it, has now been one of my defects. Therefore, when I 
was fully convinced of my error, in the steps I took to bring 
about a separation from the Church of England, in Europe, 
I delivered before a congregation of about 3000 people in our 
largest chapel in Dublin, on a Sunday evening after preach- 
ing an exhortation, which in fact, amounted to a recantation 
of my error. Some time afterwards I repeated the same in 
our largest chapel in London, and in several other parts of 
England and Ireland, I have reason to believe that my proceed- 
ings in this respect have given a death blow to all the hopes 
of a separation which may exist Iq the minds of any in those 
Kingdoms. On the same principle I most cordially wish for 
a reunion of the Protestant Episcopal Church in these 


Uaited States. The object is of vast magnitude." Then 
after giving some statistical accounts of the society, and of 
the importance of their numbers to the church, he says, 
**How great then would be the strength of our church (will 
you give me leave to call it so. I mean the protestant, if 
the two sticks were made one)." He then agrees to make the 
concession (if it may be called a concession), ''of using the 
prayer book on all occasions of public worship on Sundays," 
and also to have all of their preachers reordained, and re- 
quests the church on their part not to exact the learned lan- 
guages, and to provide that the bishops, their successors, 
shall not require it, and that the Methodists shall retain all 
their rights as a society, in receiving and rejecting mem- 
bcjrs in, or from our classes, bands, lovefeasts, etc., etc. That 
he has had three interviews with Bishop White ou the sub- 
ject and some correspondence, and after directing the 
Bishop where to direct him in Europe, concludes: "The im- 
portance of this subject on which I have now written to 
you will, I think, prevent the necessity of an apology for the 
liberty I have taken in writing to you. 

Your very humble and obedient servant, 

Thomas Coke." 

Doctor Coke writes from Leeds, England, April 14th, 1813, 
to Mr. Wilberforce, the great English statesman, asking his 
influence in Parliament to be sent to the Indies, as Bishop 
to that country to found a church there, when it was well 
known that the government never conquered or took posses- 
sion of a country without having its missionaries there sup- 
ported by the society for the propagation of the gospel in 
foreign parts, which was founded in the year 1701. Hence 
most of the English clergy in America, received the support 
of this society, and owed allegiance to it, as also to the 
government connected with it. Hence the odium cast on the 
church in consequence, at the breaking out of the war of the 
revolution in 1770, when most of the clergy were driven from 


this country. Hence the odium of this church, that has been 
handed down by tradition. In 1787, Wesley writes, "I never 
had any design of separating from the Church of England. 
I have no such design now. I do not believe the Methodists 
who regard my judgment or advice in general design it 
when I am no more seen. I declare once more, I live and die 
a member of the Church of England." [Wesley's Works, 
Vol, vii., p. 33.] 


^'Leeds, April 14th, 1813. 
^^Bear and Highly Respected Sir: A subject which appears 
to me of great importance, lies much upon my mind, and 
yet it is a subject of such delicate nature, that I cannot ven- 
ture to open my mind upon it to every one of whose candor, 
piety, and delicacy and honor, I have not the highest opin- 
ion ; such a character I do indubitably esteem you, sir, and 
as such I will run the risk of opening my whole heart to you 
upon the subject. For at least twelve years the interests of 
our Indian Empire, have laid very near my heart. In several 
instances I have made attempts to open a way for missions in 
that country, and even for my going there myself. But 
everything proved abortive. * * # # rpj^^ Lord has 
been pleased to fix me for about thirty-seven years on a 
point of great usefulness.'' And then after describing the 
influence he wielded over the Wesleyans in different parts of 
the globe, the doctor adds : "And yet I could give fp all for 
India, could I but close my life, in being the means of 
raising a spiritual church in India. It would satisfy the 
highest ambition of my soul here below." And then after 
relating a motion in Parliament concerning religious estab- 
lishments in India, connected with the established church at 
home, he says : "After an introduction drawn up in the most 
delicate manner in^which I said all to him I do to you, etc., 


etc., I enlarged on the earnest desire I had of closing my 
life in India, that if his Eoyal Highness, the Prince Begent, 
and the government, should think proper to appoint me their 
bishop in India, I should cheerfully and gratefully accept the 
oflfer. I should be glad to receive three or four lines from 
you (don't write me unless it be of immediate importance)^ 
signifying that I may wait on you immediately on my arrival 
in London. I have the honor to be with very high respect, 
my dear sir, your very much obliged and very humble ser- 
vant, Thomas Ooke." [In Wilberforce's correspondence, 
English edition.] 

Of the Prayer Book, Doctor Adam Clark says : *'It is the 
greatest effort of the reformation. Next tothe bible trans- 
lated into the English language, as a form of devotion, it has 
no equal in any part of the universal church of God. It is 
founded on those doctrines which contain the sum and es- 
sence of Christianity, and speaks the language of sublimest 
piety and of the most refined devotion. Kext to the bible 
it is the book of my understanding and of my heart." 

The eloquent Eobert Hall, the baptist, says of it : "I be- 
lieve that the evangelical purity of its sentiments, the clas- 
sical fervor of its devotions, and the majestic simplicity of 
its language, have contributed to place it in the very first 
rank of uninspired compositions." 

The presbyterian Doddridge, Hall's Works, Vol. 1 : ''The 
language of the Prayer Book is so plain, as to be leveled to 
the capacity of the meanest, and yet the sense is so noble, as 
to raise the admiration of the greatest." 

John Calvin said : "The discipline which the ancient church 
used, is wanting in us, we ourselves do not deny. Again the 
Episcopal itself, had its appointment from God. The office 
of a bishop was instituted by the authority and defined by 
the ordinance of God." 

Beze, one of the noted reformers on the continent, says : 
"If there be any, which, however, you will not easily induce 


me to believe, who reject the whole order of Episcopacy, 
God forbid that any man iq his senses should assent to their 
madness." And Melancthon, who was one of Luther's advi- 
sers and a great and learned man, says : '^I would to God it 
lay in my power to restore the government of bishops, for I 
see what manner of church we shall have. The ecclesiasti- 
cal polity being dissolved, I do see that thereafter, there will 
^row up a greater tyranny in the church than ever was be- 
fore." And also, Grotius, a presbyterian, says': **The Epis- 
copate is of Apostolic institution, because it appears that 
hishops were ordained or approved in some churches by 
the Apostles. 


Among the hills, adown the stream, the winding pathway led ; 

The Carisites and Matagordians slowly wend their way. 

The bursting thorn and bamboo-briar, the mesquit and nojal, 

Spread a caq^et thick, with woof of varied thorn and briar; 

The sun was lost, and night shades 'round were hung; 

Bexar's waters over rocks and rapids rolled ; 

But secret, mute and quick, some forty wend their way, 

For deeds of ^reat achieve, as one, were all resolved, 

For, on the heights west of Bexar's tide stood, age-whiten'd, 

The lime-stone walls of Goliad, 

Which had braved the utmost storms of Guachipjno 

And all the hostilities of men of old. 

Nor allied Hueco, Tehuacano and Comanche, 

Nor Carankawas and Castilian thunder 

Had moved, for centuries, the walls of Goliad. 

To cross the flood, to lead up to the attack, 

And head the band, was named Collingsworth. * 

But spies were out ; and one -descried and hailed — 

" Qui viro? " '' Mexicana ! " Not friendly was the voice. 

" What is your name? " " Upon my feet, my name is Milam!'* 

"Huzza, Milam! " echoed all around, when 

He, the war-worn, dungeon- worn and thread- worn 

Man of iron : " Who and what are you, boys, 

And what bold emprise brings you here?" 

"Goliad, LaBahia, must this night be stormed and carried! 

Texas now asserts her rights. 

And Bexar has and Goliad must acknowledge them ! ' ' 

Then he replied : ' ' Years have I borne 

The privations of Mexican camps and suffered 

Innumerable deaths, in battling for Mexican liberty ; 

But Liberty was not recognized by them — they knew it not. 

But myself, among its votaries and defenders. 

Have been repaid by dungeons, starvation and persecution j 

But the gallant band I meet o'erjoys, repays and 

Ample amends make me for all. Yes, this 

One night has relieved my heart and cured my ills. 

And paid for all my twenty years of suffering! " 





E. R. Wightinan, whose field notes and other writings 
the following Appendix has been compiled,^arrived in Texaa 
abont 1824, and was one of Stephen F. Austin's original 
colony of three hundred and one of his first surveyors. He 
wrote the first history of Texas, corrected former latitudes 
and longitudes of the coast regions, made field notes of all 
the rivers and their branches, and compiled the first map of 
Texas in 1828, froni^ which all subsequent maps obtain their 
basis. Mr. Wightman was the first husband of Mrs. Mart 
S. Helm, author of " Sci-aps of Early Texas History .'' 



Scraps of Early Texas History, 



The publication of the following general description of that 
part of ancient Louisiana known as the province of Tejas, 
between the Sabine river and the Eio Grande del Korte, 
ceded to the Spanish government by the Florida treaty, may 
not be uninteresting to some of your readers. 

It now composes one of the departments of the free, sover- 
eign and independent states of Coahuila and Texas, bounded 
east and west by the said rivers, Sabine and Del Norte, on 
the south by the Gulf of Mexico, and on the north by the 
territory of the general government of Mexico, separated by 
the 33d parallel of north latitude and situated between the 
25th and 33d parallels of north latitude and 93 deg. 15 min. 
and 102 deg. west longitude ; containing about 165,000 square 

It may be divided into four divisions^ of different descrip- 
tions of land : 

1. That bordering on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, ex- 
tending from thirty to forty miles back, is, in general, differ- 
ent from lands along the Atlantic coast, being of rich alluvial 
bottom lands, of great depth near the rivers, covered with 
cane, wild peach, haw, persimmon, mulberry, hackberry, 
pecan, walnut, ash, cypress, cedar, cottonwood, box elder, 
sumach, liveoak, Spanish water, postoak and overcap oak. 



138 APPE>^DIX. 

The cane more immediately on the margin of the rivers, 
and receding; the winter grass, wild rye and parsley furnish 
a rich repast for stock daring the short time the grass on 
the prairies is not good. While the live oak, overcap, pecan, 
and wild peach fatten the swine, which thrive well on these 
and roots, young cane shoots, haws, etc., the year round, 
with no other expense than scattering a little corn to them 
whenever they come home, to keep them tame. 

The rivers and bavous of this division are ebbed and flowed 
bj' the tide, and are navigable for greater or less vessels. 
And there are many safe harbors in the bays and rivers. 

The soil is most productive in all i)roductionR suitable to 
the climate. Sugar cane grows more luxuriant, becoming 
sweet, and grows much higher in the stalk than in Louisiana, 
the frost being several weeks later here than in that State. 
The cotton is of much longer staple, of more soft and silky 
texture, than that of Mississippi, producing 2,500 pounds of 
seed cotton to the acre as an average crop, while Mississippi 
will not produce over 1,000 when not endangered by the rot, 
to which it is very subject, when half a crop only is realized. 
And this never happens, nor is such a thing known in Texas. 

Sweet potatoes, rice, indigo, maize, pumpkins, melons and 
all kinds of culinary vegetables, succeed beyond description. 
In this division the majority of the land is timbered bottom, 
from the Eio Colorado to the Sabine, and will be principally 
cultivated by sugar and cotton planters. It is the most 
valuable section of Texas, lying on the coast, mostly cane 
and peach bottom, always good, and possessing all the ad- 
vantages of navigation and ready market. 

2. This division will embrace about sixty miles further 
from the coast norths and has a much greater proportion of 
prairie ; but on all the rivers and bayous is found the same 
description of soil, and timber from one to seven or eight 
miles wide. The most distinguished rivers in size and, for 
quality of land, are: the Sabine, Trinity, Brazos, Colorado, 
San Andreas, Guadalupe, San Marcos, Santa Maria, Perdi- 
nales, Xueces, Neches, San Saba, San Antonio, Bio Grande 
del Xorte, and numerous smaller ones called bayous. 


. This division, excepting the creek and river bottoms, is in 
general level, extended prairies, of good, rich black soil ; 
sometimes subject to bake and crack open and sometimes 
having so much sand as to prevent it; sometimes becoming 
more rolling ;^ where there is plenty of good wate^ . Prairie 
locusts abound, bearing a bean eight or ten inches long, very 
nutritious, on which horses fatten. Live oaks are not infre- 
quent, near little rills and in valleys, to relieve the traveler 
from the dull uniformity of extensive prairies and from his 
fatigue, by affording him a resting place. Between the Col- 
orado and Guadalupe it becomes quite hilly, with postoak, 
black jack and hickory timber, and many rivulets of fine 
water, which section, though not so great in the proportion 
of rich bottom lands as that next the coast, has much of the 
same on the rivers and bayous. And time will develop the 
fact that these prairies will be susceptible of fine sugar and 
cotton plantations, which are now neglected for want of 
timber. But hedges and ditches will supply the place of 
fence and more durable, the prickly pear being admirable 
for this purpose — when once planted it never need be re- 
planted, and through which nothing can pass. Coal, with 
which the upper country abounds, must supply the fuel and 
the clay for brick for building, while many kind of timber 
may be planted' out and the rapid growth of the timber of 
this climate would soon make forests, and a boundless 
range for horses, cattle, sheep, and goats, would be an in- 
ducement for stock raisers, and the Southern States and 
islands would always be a good market for horses and mules. 

3. This will extend north or northwest about seventy or 
eighty miles further, which will include the San Antonio 
road, leading from thence to Nacogdoches, on the dividing I 
ridge from which the waters fall off both ways, into the 
Ouadalupe, San 'Marcos, Blanco, Perdinales, Colorado^ San 
Andreas, Brazos, Trinity, etc. This road is in its direction 
parallel with the coast and about one hundred and fifty miles 
from it. And traversing this ridge all travelers who have 
described the country, have had no opportunity to know the 
country in general, particularly that between this road and 


the coast — for in fact the Spaniards themselves knew noth- 
ing of the country between the Attascosa road and the coast, 
which is the limbered bottoms described in the first division, 
always making their way through the prairies and in general 
by the Sa9 Antonio, La Bahia or Attascosa roads. Even 
Colonel Stephen F. Austin, now better than any other man 
qualiSed to give a minute description of the country — the 
first man appointed empressario for a settlement of a colony 
of foreigners, and who, through indefatigable exertions, and 
perseverence for two years in Mexico, procured the grant 
thereof in 1821 — knew nothing of the importance of that 
section on the coast within his own colony, extending from 
Bayou San Jacinto to la Arroyo Lavacca, until his surveyors 
explored it. So that all information heretofore given, has 
been what they saw along the San Antonio road or the divid- 
ing ridge. Much of it is sandy ; postoak and black jack hills, 
valuable indeed for the cultivation of the vine, which is the 
best of any, and the wild grape is everywhere seen in this 
description of land, completing this fine country, supplying 
wine, while the other divisions are so productive in sugar, 
cotton, rice, corn, indigo and all necessary fruits and vegeta- 
bles. It will not be supposed that all of this division is of 
the best described class or that nothing but the vine will 
flourish, for the vine and olive flourish together, and there 
are alternately hills and dales, and numerous bayous on 
which is fine land for cotton, corn and sugar, as well as 
much of the country, high, rolling prairie, well-watered and 
excellent grazing land ; besides, the main rivers, for their 
whole course, retain the excellency of their timbered bot- 
toms, and rich adjoining prairies, which are called bottom 
prairies between the timbered bottoms and the timbered 
high lands. 

In this division are found great herds of^wild horses, cat- 
tle, buffalo, deer, etc., and some silver mines on the Eios 
San Marcos and Santa Maria, with valuable streams for mills 
and forests of pine timber on the Colorado and in the eastern 
section of this division. And on the whole this division is a 
valuable section of Texas, being elevated, rolling and finely 


watered, promising health — where a portion of stoiek raisers^ 
planters and vinters may advantageously situate themselves 
with all the comforts and luxuries of life. 

4. This division will extend from twenty miles above 
the San Antonio road to the northern boundaries of the 
State, and will embrace a most valuable description of coun- 
try, being more -level, though more elevated than the third 
division — rich in silver and copper, coal and stone, etc., with 
a large portion of excellent land of a chocolate and some- 
times a Vermillion color, which tinge is found in most of the 
rivers in the upper countries, particularly the Bed Kiver, 
Trinity and Brazos. This division is well watered by many 
springs, rivulets and tributary rivers. The principal ones 
among which are the Perdinales, San Saba, San Andreas, 
Gabriel, Rio del Bosque, Little Brazos, San Pedro, Palo del 
Azucar, etc. In this division are situated the Hueco and 
Tehuacano Indian villages on the Rio Brazos, and San Pedro 
village, on the Neches. 

In this division are many valuable silver and copper mines, 
which though a source of national wealth rendering money 
plenty in the country, is nevertheless of little benefit to in- 
dividuals, requiring large capital to analyze and extract the 
silver, requiring many experiments, all very expensive be- 
fore it will be known what portion of quicksilver — if too 
much or too little, it all proves abortive, and without large 
capital, it will run the empressario ashore before anything be 
realized. The copper is much more certain, it being almost 
pure in its native state. But both of which must contribute 
from the most obvious reasons to the wealth of the State. 
Coal is found in many places in this division and imme- 
diately on the principal rivers. Above this division is the 
territory of the General Government. It becomes more moun- 
tainous and is the great resort of wild horses, cattle, deer, 
buffalo, etc., which beat down toward the coast in winter 
and north in summer. In particular the buffalo, which the 
Comanche Indians follow for their sustenance, rendering 
them a wandering people, as also the Lapans, Huecos and 


Tehuacanos — as they are frequently at war with each other, 
they are careful to know the route each other take and as 
the country is extensive they avoid each other except when 
a war party pursues. 

Though I have made the divisions as above for the better 
describing the different qualities of the country so conspi- 
cuous as one progresses — traveling from the coast north or 
northwest, while one traveling parallel With the coast in a 
northeast direction as all the roads run, and which all 
travelers follow, they only see one description of land, 
and this has happened with all who have attempted to give 
any description of this country, and of course tnust be erro- 
neous in regard to the whole. For while the first and second 
divisions exhibit no rock or stone, or pebble even to dull the 
edge of an axe, this third and fourth furnish a plenty of 
limestone rock and freestone, approaching the mountains, 
with fine spring water. So different is the country adjoin- 
ing the coast and that back from it, or these natural divisions 
would have been unnoticed, and the civil divisions as they 
now exist, colonies, would only have been noticed. 

The Department or Ancient Province of Texas is divided 
into partidos, (sub-departments or districts, composed of 
pueblos, towns or villages), which have inhabitants enough, 
two hundred, to elect an Ayuntamiento (municipal assembly) 
each Ayuntamiento being recognized by the government as a 
partido. The following Spanish towns have an Ayunta- 
miento — San Antonio de Bexar one, La Bahia de San Barnar- 
do one, Nacogdoches one, and each of the colonies as soon as 
they possess two hundred inhabitants, are entitled to one, 
and one is organized in San Felipe de Austin, on Brazos de 
Dios. Austin colony : each Ayuntamiento, is composed of 
an Alcalde Primero (first magistrate), two Regidors (rulers), 
one Sindico procuridor (prosecuting attorney), and two or 
more Comissarios, through which body all petitions, remon- 
strances, appeals, etc., must pass, signed by the Alcalde Tvho 
is also President and political chief of the partido, to the 
Gefe Politico del Department (political chief of the depart. 
ment), and from him to the government, in which Ayunta. 

APPENDIX. * 143 

miento all causes of minor importance are prosecuted to 
final judgment. Of which court the Alcalde is the judge, as- 
sisted by the other members, unless the parties choose each 
a man to sit in conjunction with the Alcalde to determine the 
affair. Those of higher importance are referred to the 
Fiscal General (attorney general), who decides the affair and 
if the parties are dissatisfied, he lays it before the Supreme 
Court, whose decision is final. 

There are twelve colonies, and new ones continually 


granted, viz : Col. Stephen F. Austin first, for three hun- 
dred families, now full, and since a new grant for ^ve hun- 
dred families within the same limits ; Col. Green De Witt, 
four hundred ; Col. Milam, five hundred ; Lovell & Co., five 
hundred 5 Col. H. H. League, eight hundred ; for the Nash- 
ville Texas Association (Major David G. Burnet), three hun- 
hundred; Col. Thorne, five hundred ; Gen. Wavel, from Eng- 
land, eight hundred; Barzel, from England, eight hundred; 
Col. Woodbury, eight hundred ; Mexican Mining Co., five 
hundred. All contracted to be accomplished within six 
years from the date of their grants, which were most of them 
made in 1825, but none are yet filled, except that of Col. 
Austin, granted in 1821, by the general government, pre- 
vious to the law of the 18th of August, 1824, which prohibits 
the settlement of the twenty-border leagues adjoining any 
foreign power, or ten of the sea coast, which was returned and 
received in 1827. But his land grant, obtained from the State 
of Coahuila y Tejas, since its organization for the settlement 
of five hundred families more in the same limits, is not full, 
and is subject to the restriction of the said law of the 18tli 
of August, 1824, in regard to settling on the coast. It is sit- 
uated between 28 deg. 10 min. and 31 deg. N. latitude, and 
95 deg. 30 min. and 98 deg. 20 min. W. longitude, bounded 
on the northwest by the San Antonio road, which separates 
it from League's and Milam's colonies ; on the south by the 
Gulf of Mexico ; on the east by the San Jacinto bayou, which 
separates it from Woodbury colony, and by LaArroyo La- 
vacca, which separates it from DeWitt's colony; on the west 
it is nearly a square form, its sides bearing 30 deg. W. from 

144 • APPENDIX. 

the coast and formiug a right angle with it ; containing about 
18,000 square miles, or 2000 square leagues. Its population 
at this time is about 2,500. San Felipe de Austin, the cap- 
ital, is situated on the Eio Brazos de Dios, about seventy 
miles from the coast, and has about two hundred inhabitants. 
The Empressario's office and house for the sessions of the 
Ayuntamiento and courts of the first Alcalde, two stores, a 
schoolhouse, etc., etc. Matagorda, at the mouth of the Col- 
orado, Bell's Landing, on the Brazos, twenty miles from the 
coast, Mitchell's Landing, at the mouth, Clopper's Landing, 
on Trinity Bay, and Harrisburg, on Buffalo bayou, are all 
ports, admitting vessels of one hundred tons, and Trinity and 
Matagorda bays much larger. But the towns are all in their 
infancy, just commencing. Bolivar, Fort and Bravo, on the 
Brazos, Montezuma, Columbia and Fort Austin, on the Col- 
orado, are higher up the country, and also in their infancy. 

EiVERS AND Navigation. — Arroyo Lavacca, the western 
boundary of this country, has fine bottoms and delightfully 
high dry prairies, of good rich land, with scattering liveoak 
and postoak timber, and is a beautiful healthy country. The 
river, navigable to head of tide for large boats, twenty-eight 
miles, to DeWitt's Landing. Vessels of one hundred tons 
lie in safety in the bay at the mouthy 

Eio Colorado, like the Lavacca, never overflows its banks, 
and has in its whole length as good lands as any river in 
Texas; the bottoms from one to eight miles wide, the soil 
alluvial, of a dark chocolate, and like all the other rivers of 
Texas, bears very much west above the San Antonio road 
ascending. Its length is 600 or 700 miles, and it is remarka- 
ble for its clear water, being seldom tinged with the red soil 
of the upper couutr} , as in the Brazos. The timber of the 
Colorado bottoms are similar to the other rivers of Texas, 
but with more ceder, black walnut and pecan, and having the 
finest ranges for stock and mast for swine — winter grass, wild 
rye, buffalo grass, cane, etc. 

Vessels of sixteen feet draught can enter the bay at Mata- 
gorda, at Paso Caballo, and nine feet to the mouth of the 
Colorado, and good steam and other navigation for one hun- 
dred or more miles. 


Cany Bayou, ouce one of the passes of the Colorado, but 
has now no head water from that river; but the tide sets up 
it about thirty miles forming a noble river that distance, but 
at the mouth an oyster bar prevents anything but small crafts 
entering ; has extensive bottoms of timberland, the liveoak 
and peach mast make the best of range for hogs, the ad- 
joining prairies pastures for stock. Where the inhabitants 
settle on the borders of the prairies among the wide-spread- 
ing liveoaks in front, and nothing but the Colorado timber 
to intercept the sight for about ten or fifteen miles distant; 
where they may see their own stock at . all times grazing, 
and when a little advanced into the prairies, those of the 
Coloradians ; their timber in the rear, and next the bayou 
their corn, cotton and sugar plantations ; where to begin, is 
no more than to burn off the reed cane and plant ; where cot- 
ton or corn will require no more attendance the first season, 
for where this cane grows the frequent fires has first dead- 
ened the timber, then succeeding fires destroyed it so that 
next the bayou for half a mile each side, there is no timber, 
nothing but reed cane which is called prairie cane brakes. 
So that it is easier to make a beginning here .than in the best 
improved farms in some of our northern countries. For if 
one has a plenty of corn land, he has to hoe it ; if he has 
meadow land, he must cat and save the hay ; if he has hogs, 
he must feed them his corn ; if he has timber to burn, he 
must cut and draw it ; if he has money, he must build a good 
house to protect him from the cold. Do we then have no 
houses in Texas ? as good as the climate requires, but less 
expensive. Very little wood is burned, no corn or fodder is 
required for horses, cattle, sheep or hogs. 

Eio San Bernardo, a short river rising on the prairie, for 
about seventy-five miles from its niouth is wide, deep and 
tranquil ; about forty miles up in its meanders and twenty- 
five in a right line to head of tide is navigable that distance 
for one hundred ton vessels, but for an oyster bar at its 
mouth, like Cany Bayou and Colorado. Its timbered bottoms 
are extensive, uniting with those of Cany and Brazos to 
the head of tide, where a point of Orand Prairie puts down, in 



the extreme point of which, is situated William Bell's plan- 
tation, equidistant and three miles from this and the Brazos, 
and on the west uniting with the Peach creek, at the dis- 
tance of fifty miles from the coast. The Cany and Peach 
creeks and Colorado river form one body of timber, of the 
richest of land and fine cane bottoms. 

Eio Brazos de Dios, which empties into the Gulf fifteen 
degrees northeast of the San Bernardo, admits vessels of 
nine feet draught, though the channel is subject to change, 
being sandy bottom — where they may ascend to Bell's land- 
ing, forty miles. It meanders through a delightful and 
romantic scenery of eottonwood and sycamore skirting the 
banks, running to every point of the compass, to which 
its bottoms are united with the San Bernardo on the west 
and Oyster Bayou on the east. Above this they are from 
two to seven miles wide. It receives the Kavasota from the 
east. Mill creek and Las Vegas from the west — the most con- 
siderable streams in this colony. 

Oyster and San Jacinto Bayous are fine streams of water, 
with rich bottom land. The former emptying into the Gulf 
seven miles east of Brazos, and the latter into Trinity Bay, 
navigable to the junction of Buffalo Bayou with it, on which 
is Harrisburg, twenty-two miles from its junction with the 
San Jacinto. Both of the last mentioned are made by num- 
erous head streams spreading out and forming an extensive 
body of fine rich bottom land of cane and peach, which 
denote its superior soil, always alluvial. The tide flows up 
about thirty-five miles. The San Jacinto is the eastern 
boundary of this colony. 

Much might be said of DeWitt's and Milam's colonies. The 
San Antonio road separates them and is the northern bound- 
ary of that of DeWitt ; the Gulf on the south, the Arroyo 
Lavaca east, the Eio Guadalupe and two leagues west, follow- 
ing its meanders, the western containing about 6000 square 
miles. It is a remarkably healthy and pleasant country, well 
watered, with numerous springs and rivulets, and limestone 
in the upper section. Eio Guadalupe, nearly the size of the 
Colorado, is a rapid stream of fine, clear, cold water, reeeiv- 


ing the San Marcos from the east, which is a fine little river, 
very rapid, with excellent land,* not surpassed by any. It 
rises in the mouRtains just above the San Antonio road and 
receives the Rio Blanco one mile above it, and the Santa 
Maria ten miles from its junction with the Guadalupe. From 
the east at said junction is situated Gonzales, the capital, 
laid out in 1826, seventy miles east from San Antonio and 
seventy-five west from San Felipe de Austin. The Guada- 
lupe has fine bottoms, vfery similar to those before described. 
Sixty miles below Gonzales, on the east side of the river, is 
Victoria, a Spanish town, founded by Martin de Leon, of 
about one hundred inhabitants. This town is twenty-five 
miles northeast of LaBahia, the Spanish town and garrison. 
DeWitt's colony is on the whole a fine, elevated, well- watered, 
pleasant, healthy country, better for stock than Austin's, but 
less valuable for cotton and sugar plantations, though on its 
river bottoms inferior to none. 

Milam's colony, being situated above the San Antonio 
road, between the Eios Colorado and Guadalupe, and forty- 
five miles back, is a high, elevated and sometimes mountain- 
ous country; is admirable for stock, where a fine grass 
(called mesquite), on which stock of all kinds thrive both in 
summer and winter, and where are seen herds of wild cattle, 
bufiGalo and horses in great numbers. 

; League's colony, north of Austin's and separated from it 
by the San Antonio road, bounded on the east by La Arroya 
Navasota, and the high land dividing^the waters of the rivers 
Brazos de Dios and Trinidad, until it intersects Monte Grande, 
thence southwest to the head of Rio San Andreas, thence 
southeast to the San Antonio road, including a most valua- 
ble section of rich bottom and prairie lands, besides the Rio 
Brazos, the Little Brazos, Rio San Andreas, Rio del Bosque 
and many other smaller ones with extensive rich bottoms, 
well calculated for a dense settlement of rich planters and 
stock-raisers, where now innumerable herds of wild cattle, 
horses, buffalo and deer are sole proprietors. Silver and 
copper mines are also found in its limits, with plenty of coaU 

Burnet's colony, which joins this on the east, extending 


along the Sau Autonio road as far as Nacogdoches, is so 
similar as to require no particular description, embracing 
the rivers Trinidad, Neches, Angelina, San Pedro and num- 
' erous smaller ones. 


J Woodbury's colony, lies south of Burnet's, embracing the 

; coast country. Extending from Austin's colony to the 

j twenty-border leagues and Thorn's on the north of Burnet's, 

i including Pecan Point. 

i The free, sovereign and independent state of Coahuila and 

I Texas, with the view to promote the arts and sciences, 

} to encourage agriculture and cultivation of their fertile lands, 

j. improvement in the breed of their stock, etc., off'ers to for- 

i eigners who may come and domecile themselves in its terri- 

j tories — provided they comply with the laws on the subject, 

I to present a certificate from the authorities whence they 

came of their Christianity, moral character and industrious 
habits — to each man of family, one square league, of 6,000 
varas on each side, or a superficies of 25,000,000 square 
varas (4,446 acres), and to unmarried or single men, not at- 
tached to any family, one-fourth of said portion, and a full 
league to be completed to him when married, and if marriage 
be contracted with a Mexican, one-fourth more. It provides 
that government may augment this portion, in proportion to 
size of family, capital, enterprise and utility of the settlers, as 
may be communicated through the Ayuntamiento, so as there 
is not vested in one man's hands more than eleven leagues. 

No other compensation is required for this than $30 as an 
acknowledgement. The commissioners fees to be regulated 
by the last fee bill (arancel) of the Ancient Audience of 
Mexico, who together with the surveyors and settlers, shall 
settle the surveyors' fees as they may best agree The fee 
as regards acknowlcdegmeut, quantity and quality, shall not 
be altered within six years from the passage of the same, 
April, 1825. 

From the date of settlement no other tax, duty, impost or 
tonnage, of whatever name shall be imposed for the term of 


ten years, except that which shall be generally imposed in 
€ase of invasion to repel the same, this term being concluded 
they shall be on the same footing as other inhabitants of the 

Eri(> Trinity derives its name from the bay into which it, 
flows, which is so-called from its three bays almost distinct 
from each other, viz : East bay, which extends from Point 
Bolivar along the coast towards the Sabine bay, and that on 
the west between the island of San Luis (sometimes called 
Galveston Island), and the mainland, which bay is also 
sometimes called Galveston bay, but more properly Bay of 
San Luis, and North bay, or that part of the bay lying north 
of Eed Fish bar, which is eleven miles across from Davis' 
point to Persimmon point, which three constitute Trinity bay, 
which haa always given name to the river. I shall designate 
them hereafter as East bay. Bay of San Luis and Trinity 
bay. The entrance of Bird Key island northwest to the San 
Jacinto, between the two former, will be more particularly 
described when we come to speak of the coast, bays and 
harbors. The Trinity rises in the mountains bordering on 
Eed Eiver, in the timbers of Monte Grande or Cross Tim- 
bers, and in latitude 32 deg. 45 min. north, and about seventy 
miles from Eed Eiver, and runs southeast, receiving a num- 
ber of bayous which make out of a chocolate cottonwood 
prairie and postoakland^ until it crosses the northern boun- 
dary line of Colonel Burnet's colony, in latitude 32 deg. 15 
min., which is also the northern boundary of the State, and 
fifteen Mexican leagues or thirty-four geographical miles 
north of the town of Nacogdoches, which is in latitude 31 
deg. 41 min. north, and 12 min. south of Natchitoches in 
Louisiana, where it receives the Pala del Azucar from the 
west, which rises near the Incoque, a branch of the Eio 
Pala Duro, a tributary of Eed Eiver, which, after passing 
through a fine elevated co;intry, swarming with wild horses, 
deer and buffalo, forty or fifty miles southeast of and pass- 
ing Monte Grande, it bears off east and joins with the Trin- 
ity in Burnet's colony. Descending below this we come into 
the lowlands or level extensive vale below the mountains; 


though undulating and sometimes hilly, it appears to be a 
Talley between the highlands of the north and the dividing 
ridge along the San Antonio road to Nacogdoches, and the 
dividing highland of this river and the Brazos west, and 
those between this and the Neches east. 

Texas has a milder climate than places farther south ib 
.higher lands at the foot of the mountains, north, by which 
it is sheltered from the chilling breezes of the north, and 
perpetual spring smiles in this delightful vale — for so I 
choose to call it, although it is an elevated and rolling coun- 
try. The bottoms of the rivers are from one to five miles 
wide, and commonly intervals of prairie adjoining the tim- 
bered bottoms, of a deep black soil, and from five to three 
miles in width. Passing these bottoms or intervals of prairie, 
we ascend either into the ppstoak, black jack and hickory 
highlands, or highland prairies, and then alternately one and 
the other at greater or less distances, except where there are 
creek and spring branches, when the cottonwood, hackberry^ 
willow, etc., skirt their banks, with not infrequently a grove 
of prairie locusts scattered about, much resembling an old 
apple orchard. Occasionally large branching liveoaks, ex- 
hibiting a very conspicuous superiority. All of these hills 
and dales, woods and prairies, abound with buffalo, deer and 
turkies for sustenance, and occasionally black cattle for milk 
and work and mustangs for Viding. The bottoms supply 
timber of the most valuable kind, such as cedar, cypress^ 
cottonwood, sycamore, persimmon, mulberry, black walnut,, 
pecan, live and Spanish oak, peach, etc., for all useful pur- 
poses and fruit. The most of one-half of those mentioned 
furnish mast on which swine fatten, and food for bear, deer 
and turkies ; for these are all your own, with no other ex- 
pense than to kill them« The river is susceptible of carrying^ 
down produce by boats during high water to points where 
vessels may receive it. Although the coast country has it& 
advantages, yet this section will obtain immigration just as 
easy ; as most of the immigrants are used to a high, pleasant 
country, with good water, they cannot reconcile themselves 
to a low-level country where they cannot have good springs* 


> • • r 


Texas has i)eople from all parts of the United States and 
Europe, and has a variety of soil and climate suitable to all. 
The upper section will supply the inhabitants with maize, 
wheat, grapes, olives, etc., while the lower sections will pro- 
duce sugar and tropical fruits. Honey bees are more abundant 
in this section than in any I know of, and afford more honey. 
And if it does not literally flow with that and milk, there actual- 
ly is an abundance of both. From here the river takes another 
stretch south, about twenty miles, and in a western bend re- 
ceives a fine large bayou, with fine rich, black soil, with a 
luxuriant growth of wild sunflower weeds growing on the 
• prairies and the timbered bottoms, on which fine plantations 
might be situated. The river bears off east again, and then 
southeast twenty-five miles, and receives another bayou from 
the north. The section of country in this vicinity is of the 
dark chocolate soil, and in some places of vermillion color. 
The prairies are beautiful and fertile, with a rolling surface 
and good water. Occasional beds of limestone rock occur, 
and, back in the postoak hills or highlands, is frequently 
seen a soft yellow stone which tinges the water that runs 
through it. Thence southeast about seven miles it receives 
a bayou from the southwest, which rises among the rocks 
that divide the waters of Navasota from those of this river. 
Then meandering east, northeast and southeast about thirty 
miles it receives the Arroyo Tehuasis from the north, which 
has it sources in the highlands dividing the waters of the 
Trinity and other rivers of the Gulf of Mexico from those of 
Bed Biver, in latitude 32 deg. 20 min. It has numerous heads 
and waters a fine country, having excellent land. * These 
heads unite just below latitude 32 deg. and constitute a fine 
little river with excellent bottom land, and is a great place 
for game and much frequented by the Tehuacanoes, Choctaws 
and other tribes of Indians for hunting. Between this river 
and the Bio Boyal is a beautiful undulating prairie and post- 
oak country, with frequent quarries of builaing stone. At 
the junction of the Tehuasis is a beautiful country of fine 
prairie bottoms, and on both sides and in the forks between 
them richly timbered. But what are the words beautiful, 


delightful, superb, desirable, to portray that which excites 
admiration, astonishment and delight, and when the tongue 
tacitly acknowledges that the emotions are unutterable. On 
arriving at one of those spots favored both by heaven and 
man, for that had adorned and this had not dismantled or 
contaminated its domains, I observed to my companions : 
" What a beautiful place is this ! what a beautiful vale, and 
there is a mound for a mansion ! how green and fresh the 
young grass is, and what a beautiful grove on yonder oppos- 
ite elevation, as if planted out to adorn! a line spring and 
running rill ; and there the path to approach the house on 
foot and on that side a winding carriage-way ! at the foot, in 
the rear, clusters of grapevines running up the elm saplings! 
Scull creek, meandering at the base, with its deep, dark bot- 
toms and changeful bed to counteract the wildness of the 
extended prairie to the south ! the deer carelessly feeding in 
full view, now looking and then feeding, alternately ! The 
turkies gobbling behind a point of timber! Does not this 
look as if intended for the seat of some happy man f When 
many other properties which it actually possessed were 
pointed out by my companions, and an observation made to 
me : " Yes, if our friends only knew all the advantages and 
beauties of Texas, many of them who think themselves well 
situated, would not rest contented there, when so many 
beauties lie here wanting more hands than ours to crop them. 
Wanton growth now lies waste and unenjoyed.'^ Yes, this 
place is truly delightful and worthy a settler. And how 
many more in Texas! How many have we seen in our per- 
ambulations equal and superior to this? This is only one 
among a thousand, and that nowise conspicuous. From the 
Tehuasis to the mouth of the Eio Nojal, about thirty miles 
in a direct course southeast, it deviates first to the north and 
then to the south, in a great bend of as much as eight miles. 
Thus increasing its quantity of bottom land, and receiving 
several bayou8X)n the right and left. 

Eio Nojal is in its general direction due south from its 
extensive heads, which have their source in the highlands 
dividing the ^i^aters of Rio Trinity and Bed River, and has 


no very prominent bends from its general course, but gently 
meandering here and there. And although it keeps the line 
generally it is never upon it, but when crossing it receives a 
great many tributaries. But as we are but little ac- 
quainted with these or their names, we shall pass them, only 
observing many of them have superior bottoms. The whole 
course of the river lies as it were in a vale between high 
lands on the east and west, and the country thus favor- 
ably situated holds out great inducements to settle- 
ment. The general appearance of the country is prairie, 
of a chocolate color, the highlands approach somewhat near- 
er this than the Trinity and are more abrupt. But the 
bottoms made from this description of soil are of a most 
superior quality and are in width on an average about three 
miles. The timber is the black walnut, pecan, sycamore, 
Cottonwood, elm, ash, peach and many others peculiar to 
the country. The Nojal is a stream nearly as large as the 
Trinity, and running through the centre of Burnet's colony 
north and south till it meets the Trinity, must hold a 
conspicuous place not only among the rivers for size, but 
also for the fertility of the soil of its bottoms and surround- 
ing country for farming and stock raising. It unites with 
the Trinity about twenty-five miles above the Tahuacano 
trace to Xacogdoches in latitude 31 deg. 27 min., or which is 
near the center of Colonel Burnet's colony. It meets the 
Trinity nearly at right angles, the Trinity running east, 
and the country in the forks between the rivers and on 
each side above and below is admirably calculated for a 
dense population. The bottoms of the Trinity are very 
wide and have adjoining bottom prairies from two to five 
miles, before it ascends on to the elevated table-land prairies, 
with gentle undulations here for plantations, there for dwell- 
ings and stock, and yonder for game and wild horses, until 
it shall become so valuable as to induce the farmers and 
stock-raisers to hedge and ditch, when it will be not only 
good but in some points superior to the timbered bottoms. 
Good spring water, fresh air and superior accommodations 
for stock from here to the Tahuacano trace. Curves or 


bends northeast, making a general southeast course where 
are frequently seen encampments of the Hueco and Tahua- 
cano Indians, where they have made temporary abodes for 
the purpose of hunting ; whicli as I before said is never 
done in uninviting places ; so here it is in wide spread bot- 
tom prairies, bounded by a thick, dark, deep bottom of rich 
cotton land, the entrance of which exhibits a romantic pleas- 
ing gloom, from the evergreen peach, oaks, etc., and lofty 
surrounding timber, the solitude which seems to reign, all 
inspire one with an awe peculiar to such scenery. Which 
country is certainly delighfully variegated with timbered 
highlands of postoak, blackjack and hickory, prairies and 
rales, with rivulets and spring branches, and some lime- 
stone rock, the soil either black or chocolate, the game every- 
where plenty to supply their wants which is not less invit- 
ing to the planters and stock-raisers. About ten miles 
nearly west from the Tahuacano crossing the Kichais 
creek comes in from the north, having its source with 
the heads of the Bio San Pedro in the highlands which 
divide them. It is a beautiful creek, with much good land 
and where the Tahuacano trace crosses it about fourteen 
miles east of the Trinity, is situated the old Kichais Indian 
village, which is enough in praise of the lands and country 
around, that they have selected the spot for their residences^ 
and although it may differ, it is not inferior to. other Indian 
selections for their villages, and attempt no description. Suf- 
fice it then, that the soil is black and rich, prairies good,, 
prospect pleasant, fruit, and most of the peach, oak, pecan, 
walnut, hickory and plum in plenty, and game in abundance. 
It enters the Trinity in a northern bend of the river where is 
another beautiful spot of Texas, which we shall say no more 
of, than that it is one among the many in Burnet's colony, too 
good, too rich, pleasant and advantageous to be unoccupied, 
while so many in the old States are tenants and hirelings on 
land which, beside this, would not be cultivated. From here 
it is twenty-five miles to the San Antonio road, the lower 
boundary of Burnet's colony. The prairies are elevated, in- 
terspersed with postoak groves and bayous, of timbered 


bottoms, and frequent elevations or knobs to constitute a 
diversity of soil and render it pleasant. Although this is the 
general range of the dividing ridge which that road tra- 
verses on the Trinity,, it seems to subside at some distance, 
yet it may be traced. Both sides of the Trinity is suscepti- 
ble of a dense population, the bottoms are wide, the adjacent 
prairies not deficient in rich soil, or water, and postoak tim- 
ber sufficient for every purpose at hand. Arriving at the 
road we behold the prairies covered with cattle, mules and 
horses, the property of the inhabitants settled here. A few 
Spaniards and Americans are settled here, and it is the cross- 
ing place of all the cavallados that are driven to the United 
States of the north, they are frequently kept here to recruit 
on these prairie bottoms. At this place, above the road in 
Eumet's colony, Judge Tate has established himself, whose 
worth is well known, both in his civil and military capacity, 
whose courage and cool presence of mind, enabled him to 
withstand and keep off a host of Hueco Indians, who at- 
tacked him while hunting. They knew him well, and knew he 
was a marksman, and that his gun always counted when dis- 
charged. They also had in possession a number of rifles. 
They attacked him on horseback, the rifles advancing in 
front within shot, when he would deliberately level his, when 
they would fire and give spur to their horses ; then he would 
retreat until closely pursued, and again was compelled to face 
about and make another stand. He received as many as 
eighty gunshots, and felt the effects of many a ball — and when 
he attended the Colonial Legislature a short time afterwards, 
his clothes and hat were comj)Ietely riddled. His hat was 
bored through and through as nigh as I recollect, &ye or six 
times, and several light and one severe wound in his head 
which furrowed deep in the top. He is a man that I am lit- 
tle acquainted with, but is a gentleman of easy manners and 
prepossessing appearance. His head is white with age, but 
active, strong, and his character is that of a gentleman and 
his abilities those of a high class. Although his services 
are well appreciated, Texas is not in the habit of listening 
and heaping so many honors on every one who has distin- 


^uished himself, or they would be praising all the time. 
Judge Tate speaks of it as an ordinary occurrence, and in no 
way meritorious, as every man is bound to defend himself, 
and that he merely escaped through .their unskilled raarks- 
manship, and the protection of providence. His plantation 
is immediately on the river, and besides its pleasant situation 
possesses all the advantages peculiar to the Trinity, the excel- 
lency of its rich bottoms, good timber, and facility of send- 
ing his cotton and other productions to market in high water. 
He has the best of range with no other bounds than the 
usual walks of his stock, therel>y keeping down the grass 
young and tender, and stock will not range farther, as the un- 
cropped grass soon becomes rank and tough when stock will 
not feed on it, while they can have the young and tender. 

The San Antonio and LaBahia roads intersect here at 
about 280 miles from the former and 245 from the latter and 
80 from Nacogdoches, in latitude 31 deg. north, longitude 
95 deg. 50 min. west, where it receives all the travel from 
the United States to the Brazos and Spanish country as well 
as the cavallados of mules and horses to the United States 
of the north, the troops and supplies of the Mexican Govern- 
ment stationed at Nacogdoches, as well as being a favorable 
point of trade and communication with the Indians, and other 
commercial business. Here ready communication is had 
with the coast country either by land or water, which affords 
many superior advantages, while it is also the connecting 
link between the upper and lower countries. On the east 
side of the river, at this place, the bottom prairie is very ex- 
tensive and beautiful, but in very high water is subject to 
temporary inundation, which is the great fault of the Trinity. 
But the duration is so short that its consequences do not 
extend to damage of crops, and it must operate unfavorably 
to health, although the inhabitants do not complain of sick- 
ness. And then it is of short duration and readily drained 
off, and happening in the cold seasons, the effects are not so 
pernicious. The postoak, black jack and hickory highlands 
approach the bottom prairie and form fine, sightly, elevated 
situations for building. As to richness and fertility, the 


Trinity exhibits all that might be desired, with the best of 
timber in the bottoms, and the surrounding country finely 
watered with rivulets and spring branches. Below the road 
is ^he colony of Woodbury, which extends to the coast, leav- 
ing vacant the twenty-border leagues adjoining the United 
States of the north, and ten on the Gulf, being bounded on 
the west by Austin's colony. The country soon becomes 
more level, the river bottoms rather more extensive and 
more of a prairie country, though there are several fine 
bayous with excellent bottoms. About ten miles below the 
road the Arroya Carisa enters from the northeast, which 
crosses the San Antonio road about eight miles northeast of 
Trinity, where is a small Spanish settlement and good accom- 
modations, by a Spanish gentleman. The creek takes its 
name from the cane which grows in its bottoms and has most 
superior soil, and, though not very extensive, is susceptible 
of settlement to its mouth by fine plantations. About twelve 
miles below this the Arroyo Mesquit enters from the north ; it 
rises near the waters of the San Pedro and crosses the road 
nine miles east of Carisa. It also has cane bottoms and ad- 
joining postoak and prairie lands, alternately, in convenient 
distribution of each for settlement. About thirty miles be- 
low the entrance of La Arroya Mesquit, southeast, through 
a very pleasant country, and receiving several small tribut- 
aries, it receives the Bedie creek from the west, which rises 
from several sources above the San Antonio road in Burnet's 
colony, watering a tine section of country about its heads, 
and crossing the road about twenty-two miles southeast from 
the Trinity. At the crossing there are fine bottoms though 
the timber is scarce and narrow. But the prairie bottoms, 
of equally good soil, extend back some width and make it 
more pleasing to the eye. And as there is plenty of highland 
timber, it will make up for the deficiency on the banks of the 
creek. It is of the larger class of creeks in Texas, though 
in low water but a little stream. It possesses much good 
land, and in evidence of it, the Bedie Indians have their vil- 
lage on its banks, about thirty miles below the road on the 
west side, where they have good hunting and a beautiful, 


rich country, uot far back from the coast, and the soil rich 
and the prairie fertile, and grass of the first quality abounds 
for their horses, of which they are all possessed. Their vil- 
lage is situated on the bend of the river, which opens a wide 
bottom prairie to the southwest and a thick bottom of tim- 
ber in the rear. Opposite the east side Arroyo San Juan 
enters, which makes from several branches rising above the 
road. The principal one, called Black creek, which is the 
outlet of Laguna Prieta (black lake), receives two or throe 
others and unites with the San Juan five or six miles below the 
road, and thence about thirty miles southeast falls into Bedie 
at the place mentioned. Its bottoms and the country through 
which it runs are very similar to Bedie creek, but has more 
cane bottom. From here it meanders its general course 
nearly east for about twenty-two or three miles, and then 
falls into the Trinity at the place before mentioned, nearly 
opposite the old Gosache Indian village, on the east side, on 
the banks of the Trinity, and about five miles from a small 
bayou, called Gosache Bayou, rising in Mustang Prairie and 
having some beautiful vales and narrow timber bottoms on 
it, and is good hunting ground for deer and turkies. It falls 
into the Trinity about ten miles below the village, in a beau- 
tiful prairie country. Six miles below it receives Scull creek 
from the west, which has its rise in the highland dividing 
the waters of the !N^avasota, a tributary to the Brazos, and 
the Trinity, about twenty miles above the San Antonio road, 
and runs southeast to the LaBahia road, and has much good 
land and elegant situations for settlements though the tim- 
bered bottoms are narrow. But as the country is alternately 
postoak wood and prairie, no want of timber will be expe- 
rienced. At the crossing of the LaBahia road is that fancy 
situation before described as " only one among a thousand, 
and that nowise conspicuous." The creek is narrow but 
of deep bed, and in low water is a small creek but rapidly 
rises to the dimensions of a river in time of rains. It receives 
a bayou from the east, about ten miles below the road called 
Los Buros, which rises nearly as high up the country as Scull 
creek, which is six miles from it and of considerable size. 


Below the entrance of Los Euros, Scull creek bears off more 
east, making many large bends through a delightful country, 
mostly prairie interspersed with groves of timber, in islands 
and on small bayous, intersecting in various directions, thus 
diversifying the scenery and rendering it picturesque and 
romantic until it falls into the Trinity at the head of tide, 
where it opens into a fine river navigable for large vessels 
if but over the bar at the mouth, which is said to be suscep- 
tible of improvement to admit 100-ton vessels with little ex- 
pense. The soil and land on the west side are undoubtedly 
the best, but objected to for want of timber and water. But 
these objections are not formidable ; for, in a country so fa- 
vored with water communications and contiguity to the ocean, 
possessing a soil capable of forming fine sugar plantations, 
means will be found to dispense with* fencing. Timber for 
building is plentiful, and stone-coal, with which the upper 
country abounds, will supply every want of fuel. 

The prairie country of which I now speak, will produce 
forests in a less time than would be expected by those un- 
acquainted with the rapid growth of the country, and particu- 
larly certain kinds of timber, the China tree, and many others 
become trees of eight or ten inches in diameter in, five years. 
But there are timbered bottoms on the rivers and bayous, 
though not so deep as in some other places. The cane bot- 
toms here on the Trinity and many of the bayous are not 
inferior to those of Austin's colony, west of the mouth of 
Scull creek. And at the head of Cedar bayou is a fine grove 
of cedar timber, postoak and hickory. On the prairies, * 
water is readily obtained by digging fifteen to thirty, feet, 
where it is good and cold. About fifteen miles from the 
mouth of Scull creek in a southeast direction, though mak- 
ing several deep western bends, we arrive at the crossing of 
the Attascosa road where there is a considerable settlement 
and fine plantations of respectable negro force. It is fifteen 
miles from Cedar bayou, and twenty-five from Eankins on 
the San Jacinto. A beautiful little bayou, between this and Old 
river, runs parallel with the Trinity about twenty miles, and 
enters the Trinity about half way between the road and en- 


trance of Old river. It has some fine cane and peach bot- 
toms, and is all fine plantation land between Old and Trinity 
rivers, with several bayous tributary to each. On the east 
side the country is mostly prairie and considered not so 
good as on the west. From the entrance of the middle 
bayou to the junction of Old and Trinity rivers, about eight 
miles, a little east of south, the river making a deep south- 
ern bend, regaining the line of direction. About four miles 
above said junction, at the union of these two rivers, the 
view is commanding and beautiful. The tranquil waters of 
both here spreading their silver surface, the bold high 
banks affording a prospect up and down the Trinity and up 
Old river. The prairies extending themselves on every side, 
render this place not only important with regard to its navi- 
gation, soil, etc., but a pleasant and health promising 
situation, where all the advantages of fish, oysters, game 
and commerce will contribute their share to the happiness 
of the inhabitants. A beautiful grove of liveoaks are seen 
from here on a high bluff of the bay, about ^ve miles distant 
to the southeast, at an indenture or cove of the bay into the 
land, which appears conspicuous at a distance when out in 
the bay. From the union of the two rivers a strait reach, 
southeast six miles, cornea to the diverging of the river into 
six passes or mouths, forming the radius of a semi-circle 
from southeast to northeast ; those running southwest emp- 
tying into Marn bay; those southeast into the strait or 
pass; Turtle bayou and those northeast, into the Laguna 
lake, a point of land with high bluff banks running down 
between the Laguna and river. 

Turtle Bayou, so-called frqm the frequency of turtles in 
the lake and bayou, has its source in the prairies between 
the Trinity and Neches rivers, about twenty miles above the 
Attascosa road, near the old Alabama Indian village, and 
runs due south, and for its regularity in its course and that 
with little meanderings, it is not Q^ualed by any stream in 
Texas, all the rest running to all points and making a gen- 
eral oblique direction from north and south ; though this is 
not excepted in its meanders, it does not deviate so far, and 


BOon finds its line of direction again. From the old Ala- 
bama town to the Attascosa road is about twenty miles, and 
from the road to the mouth twenty. The tide sets up near 
to the road and thus far it is a deep, noble bayou. The 
lands on its banks are good ; the cane and peach bottoms are 
narrow, but the adjoining prairies good, rich sugar lands. 
It empties into Turtle lake directly east of the mouth of 
Old river. Settlements on all these bayous, bays and riYcrs, 
will make this a country of wealth and beauty, with all the 
Water privileges added to rich plantations and extensive 
stock ranges. 

Double bayou, has its sources in the prairie east of 
Xoitli bay and north of East bay; it has but a 
short course nearly west to the bay, in two near- 
ly parallel streams or rather bayous, for they can 
hardly be said to be streams, as they have no head water 
except in wet seasons, but are i|iade from the bay and conse- 
quently are proper bayous ; though clistom has sanctioned 
the application of the term to creeks and rivulets as we have 
used it — it properly means an arm of a bay. Kear the bay 
they unite in one, and are thence called Double bayou. It 
has no bottoms but runs through the prairies, which is rich 
soil, and when land becomes valuable will no doubt be con- 
verted to good use. Its entrance is about five miles north 
of Persimmon point, which makes into the bay at the east 
end of Bedfish bar, where is a grove of persimmon trees, 
which bear that excellent fruit only excelled in flavor and 
sweetness by the fig, which point will be noticed hereafter. 

Eio Neches or Snow river, rises in Thorn's colony just 
above the line between him and Burnet, and runs nearly 
southeast and empties into the Sabine river, Thef e are two 
principal head branches east and west. On the latter about 
twenty miles below the line is the Cherokee Indian village, 
or rather a temporary residence — a beautiful country, well 
watered and timbered. The soil a dark chocolate and occa- 
sionally limestone — the surface undulating and sometimes 
hilly ; game plenty. The eastern is similar, with some sandy 
postoak hills and fine timber. They unite about forty milea 



below the line of the colony, in a fine country of rich land, 
good timber and water. The same vale, as before mentioned 
of the Trinity country betweeen the highlands north and 
the San Antonio road, receiving many fine bayous, which 
water the country in every direction by their various tribu- 
taries, mostly rising from fine springs, which everywhere 
abound. Cypress, cedar, yellow pitch-pine, black walnut, 
Cottonwood, elm, pecan, etc., abound in the bottoms, which 
are varying in width from one-half to two miles, and at the 
junction of the San Pedro, much wider. Where the beautiful 
prairie bottoms spread and form an extensive prospect, 
sufficiently elevated to be dry and healthy, yet belongs to 
the bottom prairies — always rich. The San Pedro coming 
from the west unites its fine bottoms with those of the 
Neches, constituting this a most delightful, pleasant, and 
healthy place, which seems to invite to settlement. It has 
'been at various times in possession of different tribes of In- 
dians, as each in their turn could keep possession, and 
seems to be the favorite spot of all. But it is on middle 
ground between the lands of the Choctaws and Oherokees, 
who have emigrated to the Arkansaw and Red rivers, the 
Osages and Gados, high upon Red River, and the Hueco 
and Tahuacanos on the Brazos, with the numerous petty 
tribes in its vicinity, in alliance with one or the other of 
the more powerful, viz : On the Sabine — Kabadaehos 
SO, Cosaches or Coshattas 470, Tachies or Tichais 80; on the 
Trinity — Bedies 100, Kycheyes or Kichais 170 ; on the Ayish 
Bayou— Addain 95, Ayish 25— total, 1,020. Mostly poor, 
pitiful, broken and dispersed tribes, willing to live in peace 
with all that will let them hunt and kill their necessary 
food, and to beg their peace and protection from the whites. 
So there was no difficulty to be apprehended from them. 
The other most powerful tribes are either United States In- 
dians of the north, who receive annual pay and will not in- 
terfere with the whites, and those of the west with whom 
all difficulty is over, and who have learned to appreciate the 
American rifle, and are now altogether pacific. A party of 
Cherokees had in the winter of 1827, taken possession of San 


Pedro and intended settlement ander the colonization law of 
the State. But Colonel Burnet, Empressario of the colony, 
held a talk with them, and they agreed to remove further 
north and not interfere with his colony. So that this favorite 
spot remains vacant, and the Empressario contemplates 
establishing the capital of his colony here. And the ensu- 
ing season, 1829, will also establish a ranch for stock — when 
no doubt, it will soon be thickly settled up and down Hboth 
rivers and in the forks, as well as on the numerous bayous 
so inviting to stock-raisers, planters and vintners. It is situ- 
ated in latitude 31 degrees, 30 minutes north, and longitude 
95 degrees, 28 minutes west, about twenty miles above the 
crossing of the San Antonio road and 45 degrees west of 

The Rio San Pedro rises near Rio Trinity, at one of its 
greatest northeastern bends, near the centre of the colony, 
thence curving southwardly through a postoak and hickory 
country for about twenty-flve or thirty miles, when it reaches 
the vale below the highland whence it originated, and opens 
into a beautiful, diversified country, of timber and prairie, 
undulating, hilly and level land, with rivulel and spring 
branches in every direction. Then bearing east and north- 
east through a similar country to the vale of San Pedro, 
the Indians in the forks of the Neches, as before mentioned. 
Taking a view of the two rivers and well-watered country 
around, the pleasant and salubrious section, the vicinity to 
Nacogdoches and the United States of the north, the market 
for mules and horses, which the country so invites to raising, 
the favorableness of the soil and climate to the culture of the 
vine and husbandry in general, promises that this favorite 
ground will ere long display cultivated fields and vineyards, 
towns and villages. The ground-work is laid, and the enter- 
prise and perseverance of the Empressario will leave nothing 
on his part to promote it. And we may expect that, ac- 
quainted as he is with the country in general and the influ- 
ence he possesses with the Indians to the west — the most 
powerful of any of the country — the Comanches, in particular, 
will contribute not a little to the interest of the colony, with 


whom he became acquainted by means of a trading expedition 
undertaken in hopes of re-establishing a declining health, 
by living on buffalo meat, which he happily realized, and 
learned what it was to depend on himself, not alone to pro- > 
cure his meat from the wood, but also on his own resolution 
and address to appease, persuade and control the wild sav- 
age in his fury from the wrongs of others, who did not ob- 
serve so scrupulously with him the line of rectitude, regard- 
less where the effects of their injustice might fall, but which 
he invariably observed, and says : " That he has not to re- 
proach himself with a falsehood ever told an Indian." But 
he incurred their displeasure by striking one who had abused 
a Spaniard, whom he had bought from them to restore to 
his freedom and country, his feelings having been touched 
by the beatings with clubs which the Spaniard had to endure 
every evening. He had much trouble in negotiating.for him^ 
having concluded many bargains and as often they would 
ask for some other article, until his patience was exhausted ; 
but when he looked on the imploring countenance of the 
Spaniard, who looked to him as his only hope, he offered all 
they demanded, and as they delivered him one of them pulled 
off the only rag he had left and struck him with it in the 
face, when Austin, without reflection, knocked the Indian 
down. A great turmoil ensued ; but the chiefs granted a 
council, and Austin made a speech in which he set forth that 
the property was his, and it was a direct insult on him, and 
he as a trader had a right to protect his property, and that 
the Great Spirit would avenge him if they offered violence 
to him. After mature deliberation they decided as expressed 
by these chiefs, that " It was good that their friend had a 
good heart, but bad heady which he often afterward repeated 
whenever he got in a passion, and sometimes made the same 
remark in familiar chat. But he established himself among 
them as a great man, a good man, and an orator. Thus he 
had that influence among them that, in future difficulties, his 
presence or advice in council would be listened to, besides 
establishing a very profitable trade among them for horses 
and mules. And as the country possessing silver mines lies 


north of them, a good understanding with them would be 
indispensable. Below San Pedro village, about eight miles, 
the junction of it and the Neches is about the same distance 
to the San Antonio road, where the postoak and pitch-pine 
lie in the bottoms to a narrow compass, in general approach 
first on the right and then on the left in its meanders, thus 
leaving the timber bottoms first on one side and then on the 
other, as if struggling to break its way through this dividing 
ridge along the San Antonio road. At the crossing the 
river runs along the hills to the east, thus leaving the bot- 
toms on the west, where 'Squire Williams has a fine planta- 
tion and has located himself at the verge of the timbered 
bottom on the prairie, where he has the advantage of the 
prairie for stock and the bottoms for his plantation. But 
for stock it is not here so favorable as many other parts of 
Texas, being more postoak and pine hills. And in fact ^^^ 
traveler along this road is unfavorably impressed with its 
appearance, and, were he to judge of the country from what 
specimen is presented along the road, would do it great in- 
justice. For Col. Burnet himself, in traveling here in a wet 
time and high water, and his horse frequently bogging down 
in the quicksand of these pine hills, exclaimed : "If the coun- 
try was all like this I would abandon it." But, after passing 
this ridge northwest, he observed that it became another 
country, at the same time remarking that " it was completely 
the country affording the valuable pine and cedar and capa- 
ble of producing the vine in greater perfection than the richer 
countries above and below." Two miles east of the !5^eches is 
Mound Prairie creek, so called from Mound Prairie, a small 
prairie of highland which bluffs up to the creek, and a few 
rods from the banks is one of the ancient mounds, so com- 
mon and not satisfactorily accounted for, about fifteen feet 
in height, and 300 in circumference at its base. On this 
mound was a dwelling and place of entertainment, which has 
at different times been occupied by various individuals, but 
at present is abandoned. It is a beautiful place, with live- 
oak trees scattered about, for shade on the prairie. The 
upland is good and well timbered. The creek has fine cane 


bottoms, and falls into the NeclieB about five or six miles 
below the road, where the Neches assumes a more pleasing 
appearance than near the road. And about twenty miles 
below the road it receives the Arroyo Mestango, which rises 
above the road and runs through Mestango Prairie on the 
road, a beautiful little bayou with cane bottoms. It receives 
the Hurricane Bayou about fifteen miles below, which also 
crosses the road about six miles east of Arroyo Mestango^ 
and the same distance from McLean's, who lives on a branch 
of the San Pedro, about six miles from Rio Neches. At their 
union they form a fine bayou with excellent bottoms and 
good adjoining prairie, and from thence, twenty miles nearly 
east, fall into the Neches. The country here is very sus- 
ceptible of a dense population, having extensive bottoms, 
beautiful timbered upland and rich prairies. The bottoms 
of Arroyo Mestango, Neches and Angelina^( which enters from 
the east, about five miles below) approach near each other, 
leaving only a small space between, of prairie and postoak 

Rio Angelina, a river but little inferior to the Neches, 
rises as far north as that river, from many sources in the 
dividing highlands between it and the Sabine, which when 
.united in Burnet's colony, constitute a beautiful little river 
with fine rich timbered bottoms. It has also postoak and 
pine highlands approaching near and hemming in the fine 
bottoms similar to the Neches ; but is nevertheless an im- 
portant stream receiving many tributary bayous from the 
east and west which water the country, rendering it all sus- 
ceptible of good settlements, especially about the center of 
Burnet's colony through which it passes, and in fact may be 
said to be a river of his colony, as its greatest length from 
its head to its entrance into the Keches is in that colony. Its 
direction is nearly on a line of the general course of the 
Neches, from its union with it to its mouth, the branch 
west which bears the name deviating to the west. At the 
crossing of the San Antonio road, is the residence of William 
Larison — a most accommodating man who keeps entertain- 
ment for travelers and a ferry-boat in high water for crossing 


the river. It is somewhat monntainoas or hilly and broken 
around him, which keeps the river within a narrow compass, 
but the bottoms are good and rich, and plenty of cane almost 
the whole distance of the road. At ten and fifteen miles 
below the road, the river receives two bayous from the east, 
which cross the road between it and Cissulver's creek, and 
about five miles below arrives at the junction with the Keches. 
The country around, the fine wide bottoms, the united rivers, 
all conspire to make this a place worthy of settlement. The 
river now assumes more importance and claims a place 
among the principal rivers of Texas — the bottoms widen, 
the soil is good, the prairie more rich and extensive, game 
everywhere plenty and grass abounding. It is now suscep- 
tible of a fine settlement along its bottoms for plantations, 
with good stock range in the adjoining prairies and postoak 
lands. The hills have subsided into a good rolling, undulat- 
ing country. It receives many bayous from the west and 
east, with whose names we are unacquainted, which furnish 
plenty of stock water. It receives the Ayish bayou from 
the northeast at a deep eastern bend of the Neches about 
fifty miles from the junction of the Angelina, in latitude 30 
degrees and 30 minutes north, and longitude 94 degrees and 
16 minutes west, which is the head of the tide, to where ves- 
sels of 100 tons can come, with the exception of shoals at 
the mouth, which it is probable, may be improved, but may at 
present enter with four feet of water. The banks are high 
and permanent, and bottoms rich and extensive, admirably 
adapted to sugar and cotton — stiff cane-brake and peach bot- 
toms, -with all the timber mentioned of the Brazos and 
Colorado, the depth of soil being from twenty to thirty feet. 
The adjoining prairies are not inferior to any — the game, the 
fish and other water privileges are no small consideration in 
the first settling of the country. The back country so fertile 
and extensive seems to mark this spot for a place for future 
business. The site is well adapted to such an event, with 
sufficient bottom land, to be laid off into labors, to accom- 
modate a great many planters. Between the i^eches and 
Ayish bayous is an extensive, deep, rich bottom, uniting 


their timbers with each other some distance above their 
junction, and when the bottoms of both, so superior in quali- 
ty and extent, become united or run contiguous to each 
other, thus increasing the quantity of the valuable bottoms, 
together with the facility of navigation, the anticipation of 
its future prosperity is irresistible. Boats may descend in 
high water from above the San Pedro village in Burnet's 
colony, as well as down the Ayish bayou, which together 
with the surrounding country will support the place, where 
vessels can receive the produce and bring whatever articles 
are wanted from Kew Orleans and other posts. If small craft 
alone should be able to ascend here, it will be sufficient to 
render it an important point. It is now subjected to the 
prohibitory law of the 18th of August, 1824, in regard to 
settling within twenty border leagues of a foreign power, or 
ten of the sea coast, without the previous approbation of the 
Supreme Executive power, being within twenty leagues. But 
will probably be permitted to settlement by proper ap- 

Ayish Bayou, so named from the Ayish tribe of Indians 
settling on it, has its rise in the mountains north of Nacog- 
doches near the northeast corner of Colonel Burnet's colony, 
and forms a curved line to the east and almost regaining its 
westings again at its junction with the jS^eches, receiving 
several important tributary bayous, and at its junction is 
nearly as large as the Keches. The country through which 
it runs is mostly a deep chocolate and sometimes vermilion 
colored soil, which is deep and fertile and productive. The 
timber growing in this description of soil from its thrifty 
growth, indicates its quality, for although that timber is 
never found to grow to such height in southern climates as 
further north, but making up the deficiency in branches. 
Yet this soil produces very tall, straight, handsome timber, 
even on the uplands, and as good cotton as most of the bot- 
toms. The black walnut, pecan, elm, live and Spanish oak, 
mulberry, etc., grow in this soil on the upland, which is not 
common. The upland is more heavily timbered than any 
upland elsewhere in Texas that I have seen. The country 


is well watered, and is somewhat hilly, like our northern 
States, though not mountainous and is extremely healthy. 
At the crossing of the road leading from Nacogdoches to 
Natchitoches, as well as above and below, and east and west 
it is a settled country, called the Ayish Bayou country — of 
1,500 or 2,000 inhabitants. But as the settlements were 
mostly made under old Spanish claims which often proved 
invalid, some settled without permission, presuming to 
hold by priority, or to abandon when no other alternative 
was left; others relying on the right which the United 
States of the north had over it, and that they would assume 
and support their claim, have remained. While some be- 
coming restless, without a permanent title sold and gave 
place to others soon to be as restless. They petitioned 
Government for titles and many other things which they felt 
either aggrieved, in or wished amendments of their situation. 
But Government, viewing them as interlopers whom they 
had never given permission to settle, only answered that 
they might become citizens by complying with the laws. But 
ever so many valuable plantations had to be put down as 
unlocated lands, when the prohibitory law of the 18th of 
August, 1824, passed by the General Government, put them 
into greater uncertainty. And the inhabitants, unwilling to 
submit to the customs and laws, which some individuals 
would persuade them emanated from the Mexican Govern- 
ment, but perhaps in the administration of them they ren- 
dered them in effect those of old Spain, w^hich kept up a 
continual rancor among the inhabitants. 

Some Spanish settlers, whose partiality for the old customs 
and laws with which they were accustomed, who had not 
learned the mild republican government which the congress 
had adopted, did not contribute much to harmonize. And 
in 1825, Ool. Edwards obtained a grant to settle five hundred 
families in the limits which are now Burnet's and Woodbury's 
colonies, and not taking measures to reconcile their feelings, 
demanded pay on the sitios then occupied, which irritated 
them still more, and they acting together with those in office 
as alcaldes, represented his conduct to the Government, and 


he was dismissed from his empressarioship. Xot willing to 
give it up, he, in accord with many of the Ayish Bayou 
country, determined to resist the Government and establish 
an independent government, and probably was not a little 
influenced thereto by a certain Dr. Hunter, who has made 
some figure as being Indian bred, and only guessed his origin 
by comparing his color with that of some traders. The 
traders represented his case to Washington city, and the 
authorities there had him released from captivity, and while 
he was yet a lad, gave him a liberal education and sent him 
to England to complete his studies. While in England, he 
wrote an account of his life and published a plan to civilize 
the tribe of Indians that had brought him up from infancy, 
and whom he still respected and loved and who had claims 
on him as relatives ; for his Indian mother and relatives were 
still dear to him. His plan was to settle near them and es- 
tablish a plantation, factories, etc., and invite their assistance 
and residence with him, settijig them the example and learn- 
ing them industry and the arts, etc. He had gained some 
influence among the Indians, and had just returned from 
Mexico and knew all about their resources. Kelying on him 
the disaffected assumed a bold and defiant stand, and forti- 
fied themselves at Nacogdoches, depending on Indian alliance 
and flattering themselves that Austin's colony would join 
them, declared themselves independent, and hoisted their 
own colors under the name of Fredonia. The Government, 
informed of the procedure, sent on a detachment of regular 
troops, under Col. Ahumada, who called on Col. Austin for 
his forces, who turned out en masse, and accompanied by the 
political chief, Antonio Saucido, marched for Nacogdoches. 
Major Kinney was despatched by Col. Austin with his com- 
pany of chosen riflemen, to proceed by a forced march to 
gain the Cherokee and other Indian rendezvous, and either 
secure them in their interest or defeat them. In the former, 
however, they succeeded, and the party of Fredonians assem- 
bled at Nacogdoches, learning that Col. Austin's colony* were 
in the interest of the Government and that the Indians were 
deserting them, and other succor on which they relied to 


afford them assistance, prudently determined to abandon their 
stronghold at Nacogdoches and make good their retreat. 
Some of them were intercepted by Major Kinney and brought 
prisoners to Nacogdoches, which they had lately evacuated 
and^which. Major Kinney took possession of and held until 
the troops under Ool. Ahumada arrived, who said : " It was 
hard 'service for the Americans to take their own country- 
men prisoners and deliver them up to their adopted country." 
He very generously determined, as they were not the prin- 
cipals in the rebellion, to set them free by their leaving the 
Kepublic. At the earnest request of Col. Austin, this ended 
the Nacogdoches war, with only the loss of two or three by 
the Indians, among whom was Dr. Hunter, by one of his own 
Indians, who said Hunter had deceived him in telling that 
all the Americans were concerned with him, and another 
young gentleman who was flying with his family and who 
had been led into it. All those actively concerned in the 
affair were banished the country and tranquillity was restored, 
but nothing has yet been done by the Government with re- 
gard to the titles to this section. But it is said that General 
Teran is shortly to be sent on to adjust their claims and put 
the inhabitants upon a permanent footing ; and if settlements 
are permitted hereafter, no country can boast of greater ad- 
vantages than this, so salubrious, fertile, and contiguous to 
the coast. And the United States certainly cannot fail to 
render this section a most valuable one in the State. For 
the rich land is not confined to the bottoms, but all the inter- 
mediate land between them is of superior quality of upland. 
And the many bayous which water the Ayish Bayou country 
have all of them fine bottoms. Two miles east of the cross- 
ing is a small bayou which crosses the road, and eight miles 
farther the Palo Guacho, which falls into the Ayish bayou 
about twenty miles below the road. Palo Guacho (broken 
tree) is a fine country, with extensive and rich bottoms, with 
excellent timber and some cane and peach. Below the en- 
trance of Palo Guacho, the Ayish bayou receives the Arroyo 
Oveja, which is the union of two creeks which rise above the 
road and water this fine country, and when united with the 


Ayisb bayou, flows southwest, receiving the Attoyaque from 
the northwest which rises northeast of Nacogdoches, between 
the head of Ayish bayou and that town. The soil, bottoms, 
timber and adjoining upland are very similar to those of the 
Ayish bayou, of a reddish or deep chocolate-colored soil. 
Too much cannot be said in favor of the Attoyaque and 
Ayish bayous. At the crossing of the road leading to Na- 
cogdoches is a considerable settlement. A Wm. Lloyd keeps 
a ferry in time of high water, but is confined to narrow bounds 
by the adjoining uplands. From Nacogdoches to within 
fifteen miles of the Sabine, from high up to the coast, is sus- 
ceptible of a dense population and the richest plantations. 
The Attoyaque, after receiving several tributary bayous in 
its winding and curving course, unites with the Ayish bayou 
eight or ten miles above the junction of the latter with the 
Neches, at which place, as before mentioned, steamboats and 
barges plying the Neches and Angelina west, meet such ves- 
sels as may navigate the river below, as no other difficulty 
would be experienced in ascending with one hundred ton 
vessels than at the entrance at the pass or strait of the 
bayou and the bar at the mouth of the river, which is 
thought by many, can be easily removed by opening the 
channel. From which place the river runs south about five 
miles receiving Indian and Walnut creek from the east, then 
making a deep western bend and receives another bayou from 
the west, and thence another equally great bend east, with 
many meandering courses, as if undetermined what course 
to pursue. All a rich cane and peach bottom, of from five 
to ten miles in width — very similar to those of Cany and San 
Bernardo, with liveoak and all the other timber mentined of 
on those rivers, and not inferior in range for stock and swine 
to them, from which it must be obvious that this country 
will soon find emigration and flourish in cotton and sugar. 
To say more would be to repeat, to say less would be injus- 
tice. From the lower bend it finds its way to the Sabine 
bay in latitude 29 deg. 58 min. east, and longitude 94 deg. 
west. The country about the mouth is prairie, and between 
this and Trinity bay is alternately prairie and timbered bot- 


toms, on the sereral bayoas which enter the Gulf and bays. 
The principal are the Salt Marsh bayou, which is about forty 
miles in length, has some excellent bottoms, and enters into 
Salt Marsh at the west end of Mud Flats, at which place a 
small craft may in safety go ashore when the sea is too 
rough out, as small boats frequently coast along the shores. 

Arroyo Terminos, which rises west of it and runs into an 
arm of East bay and bayous, for both of these almost unite 
with each other and with Sabine bay, and in high water do 
actually flow together, thus presenting a limit to inland 
water communication with the Trinity, and consequently 
still on the west to Matagorda, Aranzas, Corpus Christi and 
Matamorai^, which is altogether practicable by means of the 
different lagunas and connecting bayous with the several 
bayous on the coast. 

Taking a view of the country drained by the Neches and 
its tributaries, it exhibits a wider country and better watered 
and richer soil than any other river of the same magnitude 
in Texas, extending along the road not less than one hun- 
dred miles, embracing the following rivers, and bayous : San 
Pedro, Neches, Attoyaque and Ayish bayou. 

Eio Sabina or Sabine river, the eastern boundary of the 
State of Goahuila and Texas, divides it from that of Louisi- 
ana in the United States. This river rises in the mountains, 
dividing the waters of the rivers of Texas from those of Ked 
Kiver in latitude 33 deg. north, from numerous sources, 
making its general course a pretty regular curve and des- 
cribing nearly a semi-circle of a radius of one hundred miles. 
Its head branches are abundantly watered and run through 
Thorn's colony north of Burnet's. It is a river better known 
than the other rivers of Texas. I shall, therefore, say but 
little of it. The lands with some exception, twenty miles 
each way from it, is yellow or pitch-pine hills of rather for- 
bidden appearances, similar to some lands along the San 
Antonio road. And those who have barely crossed over 
into the Mexican territories, will be unfavorably impressed 
with its lands and appearance. While the river has fine bot- 
toms, they are subject to inundations and we find but little 


to say in its favor. The fine lands described will no doubt 
be well adapted to the culture of the vine, and the timber 
land valuable for lumber, and situated so near the coast 
must, notwithstanding all that makes against* it, become 
valuable and in fact fine plantations will be made in the bot- 
toms, as small levees will secure it against the overflows. 
The timber of the bottoms is valuable and some plantations 
on both sides of it are now worked and found to produce 
good cotton and corn crops. And the many tributfiry bayous 
also furnish rich bottoms — and east of it in Louisiana they 
are settling the country rapidly and will settle, and let the 
Ayish bayou country pass without even viewing it, only be- 
cause it is under another government, so partial are we all 
to our native land — "every one's eve^ best loved country is 
at home." However, if I may not be charged with Mexican 
partiality, I would say that Sabine runs through a better 
country and less hilly, though elevated, until the head 
branches become united and crowds up near to Eed Eiver 
Where the pine hills commence about on the 94th deg. of 
west longitude, where it touches the boundary line between 
the two governments, at the mouth of Dugan's creek, which 
enters from the north, near the I^abadacho Indian village, 
thence running east and southeast to the Nacogdoches road, 
receiving Darby's, Toney's and Loftus^ creeks, and Haw 
creek from the north and east, and Nabadacho and several 
others from the west. The road crosses it twenty-five miles 
of Cantonment Jessup and fifty from ^Natchitoches, and sixty 
from Nacogdoches, where there is considerable settlements on 
both sides of the river. The pine hills approach to the tim- 
ber bottoms without any prairies, consequently is not a stock 
country, when compared with the prairies. And I should 
think it not very good for corn or cotton except in the bot- 
toms, while wjieat and English grains and the vine will be 
the productions of the uplands. Below the road the river 
makes many deep bends eastwardly and then runs southeast 
to the bay, receiving the Canari, San Jose, Bayou Toro and 
Bayou Coaeo. At the mouth of the last is situated the old 



Coshatta Indian town, where the country becomes much 
more pleasant and rich, with prairies adjoining the river and 
Coshatta creek from the east, and the Tausha, Patron, Wau- 
chateha and many other bayous from the west, and falls into 
the Sabine bay in latitude 30 deg. north, and longitude 
93 deg. 52 min. west. 


The coast from the Belize at the mouth of tlje Mississippi 
to the Trinity, Matagorda and Aranzas, is very easy of navi- 
gation. To Galveston, at the east end of the Island of San 
Luis, is due west, making a considerable indentation at the 
Sabine bay, and by standing out from Belize to gain 
the open sea, almost invariably a direct course may be held 
with a southeast wind, until against Galveston, and the en- 
trance to Trinity bay in longitude 95 deg. 10 min. west, and 
latitude 29 deg. north. To make the mouth of the Brazos de 
Dios, the Island of San Luis runs very near east and west, and 
about fifteen miles from the west end three liveoaks appear 
conspicuous as you sail along parallel with it— the mainland 
bearing nearly southwest from the western extremity of the 
Island about ten miles to the entrance of the Brazos, where 
is generally a signal or beacon, but may be always known by 
the timber marking its course, and the reddish hue of its 
waters can be discovered some distance at sea, especially in 
high water. The channel is subject to vary and although a 
skillful navigator would be at no loss to follow it by strict 
attention, pilots can be obtained, which would 'be safer to 
those unacquainted. It is in latitude 28 deg. 50 min. n«rth, 
longitude 96 deg. west. Though the Spanish and other 
charts make it more. From the mouth of the Brazos to 
Passo Caballo the coast is south 30 deg. west, eighty miles, 
having gained 40 min. southing and 1 deg. 10 min. westings. 
Fourteen miles southwest of the mouth of the Brazos is the 


entrance of the Bio San Bernardo, which small vessels of 
only four and a half feet draught can pass the bar, and Cany 
bayou eight miles southwest of it, about the same depth of 
water, and fift^'-eight miles southwest of it, Passo Caballo. 
The entrance into Matagorda bay is easily recognized, as the 
bay is seen for forty miles along the coast, with only a nar- 
row strip or peninsula of land from one-half lo two miles 
wide, separating it from the Gulf, at the extremity of which 
is a small sand island, between which and this point of land 
vessels six feet draught may enter, but the pass on the 
southwest side is sixteen feet water, the land immediately bear- 
ing more southwardly. Immediately after gaining the inside 
of the pass a bayou puts into it from the west, which com- 
municates with the bay of San Bernardo, thence from Passo 
Caballo the land bears more southwardly to Passo Aranjuez 
about thirty miles, and thence south to the mouth of Bio 
Bravo del Norte, two hundred and twenty miles from Passo Ca- 
ballo, in latitude 25 deg. 45 min. north, and longitude 97 deg. 
30 min. west. Dwight makes the Bio Colorado three hun- 
dred miles north-northeast of the Bravo, seven hundred and 
twenty miles between the Colorado and the Perdido in 
Louisiana, and the width between the Gulf and 33 deg, north 
latitude, two hundred and fifty miles — consequently the 
coast of the Gulf in latitude 29 deg. 24 min., which may be 
the average latitude of the whole northern coast of the 
Gulf, but too high for that part west of the Sabine 

The depth of water along the coast is very regular, gra- 
dually shoaling as you approach the land, so that by once 
sounding, it is known what the soundings are for ten miles 
around and how far from land ever so dark a night. 
The water is generally shoal half a mile from shore. At the 
Sal^^ne bay the water is shoal and channel narrow. Small 
boats navigating the coast, may go ashore at the west end 
of Mud Flats of the Sabine. The rest of the way to Bird 
Key, there is more surf than east of the Sabine which how- 
ever is not in general heavy. The Trinity bay is about nine 
feet deep, intercepted however, by a shoal reaching clear 
across from Davis' point on the west to Persimmon point on 


the east, a dlBtauee of eleven miles, called Eedfish bar, 
with only a pass near the middle admitting vessels to pass 
which have draught of about seven feet, when they may 
ascend to the San Jacinto and Buffalo bayous. But at 
the harbor of Galveston on the west end of the Island of San 
Luis, vessels drawing sixteen feet may enter by passing 
around Campeachy island and entering the harbor directly 
south of 5?oint Bolivar. 

The port of Galveston has been for some time nominally 
established as a port of entry, and if it should be found 
eligible for that purpose, will no doubt become a place of 
consequence. Though Colonel Austin when ordered to ex- 
amine and make survey of it, reported the situation too low, 
as being subject to storms, to inundations from the sea, 
which, if that danger cannot be remedied by levees and em- 
bankments, must render it ineligible. 

The Bay of Matagorda is very irregular and indented by 
a point extending into it. But it is a good safe harbor and 
mud bottoms for anchorage — where any number of. vessels 
may lie in perfect security under the point of land which 
separates the bay from the Gulf, and making the pass safe 
at all times in still water, by the main on the southwest and 
west, and the Island and Peninsula on the southeast and 
south. Vessels drawing nine feet of water may approach near 
the mouth of the Eio Colorado, forty-five miles northeast, 
where the bay is only seven miles wide ; and six feet draught 
to the mouth of the Arroya Lavaca, thirty-eight miles 
north, sixteen deg. west. And vessels drawing six feet may 
pass through the connecting bayou between Passo Caballo 
and the bay of San Bernardo, and thence to Mesquite Land- 
ing near the junction of Bios San Antonio and Guadalupe, 
with the exception of some obstructions among some small 
islands in the bay of San Bernardo. 

San Bernardo Bay is very irregular, arms running far into 
the land south and east, and uniting by means of a connect- 
ing bayou with that of Aranjuez, forms an island from Passo 
Caballo to Passo Aranjuez, as irregular as the bays, by the 
points and peninsulas between the arms of the bays. Here 



large qaautitie» of lirst rate alum or rock salt may be ob- 
tained. The high tide filling various reservoirs or ponds 
with salt water, which between neap and spring tides or 
hard storms is evaporated by the sun and made into salt^ 
which the colonists are commencing to make into an article 
of commerce. The Spanish settlements having a plenty to 
the west of this along the coast in various places from here 
to Tampico, where any quantity of this may be obtained. 
From Passo Caballo to Mesquitc Landing is northwest forty 
miles, and from there to the town of La Bahia is thirty-five 
miles west. 

Aranjuez or Aransas bay lies adjoining San Bernardo 
northwest. The pass or entrance to the bay is in latitude 
27 deg. 57 min. north, longitude 97 deg. 30 min. west. Vessels 
of eight feet draught may enter the pass and lie in safety in 
the bay, but cannot go to the head of the bay with more than 
six feet, which is a very crooked channel, but easily fol- 
lowed. The general course is 16 deg. west of north about 
twenty-eight miles and about thirty-five miles from the town 
of La Bahia. Between the most northern extremity of this 
bay and the extremity of the northwestern arm of the bay 
of San Bernardo, is situated the fort of Monsieur de la Salle, 
erected in 1685. This is the best and easiest port for vessels 
communicating with the Spanish country on and adjoining 
Eio San Antonio. 

The bay of Corpus Ohristi lies south and southwest of 
Aranjuez, which is said to be similar to that of Aranjuez in 
<5ommercial advantages and will be the main harbor of 
Lovell & Co.'s Colony. There can, with very little labor in 
completing the union of the several bayous almost united, 
be an inland communication from this bay to the Brazos San- 
tiago and south and east to the Sabine, which must be no small 
advantage in commercial operations to the inhabitants of 
Texas. Salt is found along the coast between Aranjuez bay 
land Eio Grande del Norte. The water in high swells of the 
sea and rough weather, breaking over the first boundary of 
the waters and filling up the space between the first audi 
second banks of sand and shells, of which the natural levees 


or embankineuts of the shore of the Gulf is composed, and 
when the storms subside is left to be evaporated by the sun 
and is formed into a first-rate salt which is in such quanti- 
ties as to be inexhauitible, which will probably become an 
article of export. * 

Small boats, navigating from New Orleans to the Trinity, 
have practised ascending the Mississippi and entered Bayou 
La Fouche, and descended it until the Bayou T6che makes 
out west, and descending it to a small lake or bay, thence 
taking Morris' cut off to Vermilion bay, and then coasting 
along where they can run into several bays and inlets — the. , 
Calcasieu, Mermentau, etc., etc. — until they can make the 
Sabine, and watching favorable tides may make the Trinity 
in small open boats in safety. And from thence through 
that bay to Rio Brazos de Dios. But to those unacquainted 
with the coast it would be dangerous. Vessels sailing from 
the Belize to the several harbors on the coast of Texas, by 
the Spanish and other charts, almost uniformly find them- 
selves brought up by the land before they expect it, and 
outrunning their reckoning and making the trip before they 
calculated — nor do they keep out so far as they intended 
from the land. The reason is, the coast is represented in too 
high a latitude, not bearing south so soon as it actually does ; 
for from the western extremity of the island of San Luis, 
the land immediately slopes very much south to Passo Ca- 
ballo, and I think the longitude is made too much — which 
if it be, that cause together with an uuperceived or unnoticed 
eddy along the coast, contrary from the Gulf stream, which 
here commences, increases their velocity for which they do 
not allow in their calculations. And I believe that various 
rivers have been taken for the Colorado, to-wit : The Brazos, 
for its length and color of its waters, as well as emptying 
into the Gulf, all agree with that represented on all the old 
maps for the Colorado, and the Brazos not being noticed at 
all, seems to confirm the idea that the Brazos has been taken 
for the Colorado, And indeed the name itself (Colorado), 
signifying red or reddish, seems to have meant that river, for 
it is in fact as much so as Bed Biver in the color of its waters,, 


while the Colorado is not, but is generally clear, transparent 
water. Besides the Colorado is forty-five miles wide at its en- 
trance into Matagorda bay from Passo Caballo, where yessels 
in general, heretofore, woald have n* business to lead them 
to its month ; and seeing the Colorado upon the maps have 
taken the Brazos for it, which however, will not agree with 
the longitude given of the Colorado. And they who have 
judged from the longitude have taken the Guadalupe for the 
Colorado. Had the longitude agreed with the Brazos, I 
would have concluded that the present Eio Brazos de Dios 
was the original Colorado, etc., and that it had by some 
means swapped its name with that river, and perhaps with a 
view to mislead, for the same confusion exists among the 
bays, some confounding the Matagorda with that of San 
Bernardo. Others making the bay of San Bernardo at the 
mouth of Eios San Bernardo and Brazos, which both empty 
boldly into the Gulf itself. Others make the Aranjuez bay 
to be that of Corpus Christi, and have no San Bernardo 
bay represented. Passo Caballo also has its uncertainty, or 
otherwise there are several passes called by that name. For 
both Spaniards and Indians, who speak Spanish, say that the 
true Passo Caballo (horse pass), is at the cluster of islands 
in what I have denominated San Bernardo. But I believe 
that the truth is that wherever the Spaniards and Indians 
have been in the habit of crossing these ranges of bays with 
horsis, they have denominated those places passo caballos 
(horse passes), which are at various places where they can 
either swim or ford with their horses. But at present the 
strait or inlet to Matagorda has received the sanction of 
that name. In ascertaining the true bay of San Bernardo 
there can be no difficulty, for the present town of La Bahia 
is written on the Spanish maps, La Bahia de San Ber- 
nardo, and although it is not within forty miles of the bay, 
it is so called, signifying the bay of San Bernardo from this 
circumstance. That a town was commenced on the shore of 
the bay of San Bernardo, and took its name, but the place 
not proving favorable, or from some cause, it was removed 
back to its present site on the west bank of the San Antonio 



river, carrying with it, in the removal, its original name of 
La Bahia, which without the knowledge of this fact, is a 
mystery why so called. 


The prairies between Eio Grande del Norte and the Nueces, 
'are quite extensive and almost one entire prairie, except 
where small rivulets occur, when they are fine river bottoms. 
The Arroyo Patronillo especially, is a most beautiful stream 
with fine rich bottoms ; but the general face ol the country 
is prairie, in some places, however, somewhat resembling the 
barrens of Kentucky and Tennessee, though not like them 
covered with shrub oaks, but various kinds of shrubbery 
alternately occurring with the prickly pear, which grows 
immensely large and branching, through which nothing can 
pass, and then clear open spaces, and occasionally groves of 
mesquite (prairie locust), wBieh is however denominated 
prairie. These thickets considerably impede traveling, as it 
is always necessary to go arolind them, especially the prickly 
pear, for sometimes there are acres covered with them, nor 
man, nor beast will attempt to penetrate them. The soil is 
susceptible of cultivation and rich and fertile, and where 
water can be had — with the exception of timber — would be a 
•desirable place to live. And when land shall become scarce 
and valuable, there is not the least doubt that these prairies 
will be cultivated ; where water is lacking, wells must be 
«unk; hedges and ditches supply the place of fence and 
brick made use of for building ; and coal for fuel, with which 
the upper countrj^ abounds. 

From the Nueces to the Eio San Antonio, excepting the 
Spanish settlements and claims, belongs to the colony of 
Messrs. Lovell & Co. It is in general interspersed with 
lawn, groves of timber, creeks, bottoms and uplands, rolling 
prairies, delightful mesquite vales, etc.; immediately on the 
«oast, where it receives all the exhilerating influence of the 


sea breezes uuintercepted; good water aud Hue rauge for 
6tock. The mesquite grass which abounds here is superior 
to every other known, consequently must be a great stock 
country; the game is plenty, deer and turkies at all times, 
and buffalo in the winter. Wild horses are seen in immense 
gangs in all directions ; fish, oysters and other shell fldh 
along the coast in plenty ; and abundance of the coarsest 
kind of alum salt on the islands and along the main, which 
fills up in high water or hard storms when the swells break 
over the first boundary of the Gulf, and evaporates from the • 
heat of the sun. There is evidently a great lack of timber 
in this section, but necessity j^lways gives spur to invention, 
and as the Spanish country, especially in the interior, is 
lacking in timber, they have shown the way to remedy the 
evil, which colonists must adopt in their economical habits 
with regard to timber, for little in this favored climate will 
answer every purpose* 

Messrs. Lovell & Co. contemplate introducing emigrants 
from France to settle their colony, with the view of cultivat- 
ing the grape, for which this portion of the country is most 
admirably adapted. Speaking in general, this section may 
be dfenominated prairie country. But there is certainly no 
incdiisiderable portion first-rate timbered bottoms. 

Thiat section lying between Eios San Antonio and Guada- 
lupe may also be denominated prairie country, but a strip 
near the latter river, after passing the prairie bottoms about 
thirty miles from its mouth, is mostly postoak, blackjack, 
and hickory timbered lands, beautifully watered with many 
perennial creeks, which issue in springs from those hills or 
highlands. Next the San Antonio it is more prairie, but . 
with many tributary bayous, on which is plenty of timber, 
and there are occasional postoak groves in various sections. 
The general face of the country is undulating, or sometimes 
approaching to hills, the soil good, and well adapted to stock- 
raising and farming. Cotton would succeed well in almost 
any part of the country, sugar in the bottoms. The olive 
and the vine will no doubt be extensively cultivated as 
almost all the uplands will be well adapted to their culti- 

if ? 


Above the San Antouio road, after passing the same divid- 
ing ridge which that road traverses, which here assumes the 
character of mountains and many places rich ledges of rock, 
we come into a more level though elevated country, where 
the soil is of fine chocolate loam, very productive in all 
kinds of vegetation. The whole country abounding in game, 
turkies, deer, wild cattle, buffalo and mustangs; the latter 
in gangs, from fifty to three or four hundred, are seen every 
day traversing the prairies. The country to the extreme 
heads of the Eio Guadalupe is represented as being most 
delightful and pleasant, interspersed with many beautiful 
rivulets, and many considerable tributaries to Eio Gauda- 
lupe, on which are fine bottoms. The country in general 
certainly promises health and can be no other than salubrious. 
The prairies between the Guadalupe and Colorado rivers 
near the coast, are nearly one extended open prairie, only 
divided by the few bayous which intervene. But the La- 
vaca and Navidad bayous are exceptions. When thirty 
miles from the coast the bottoms on the several bayous are 
more extensive, and the postoak, blackjack and hickory in- 
terspersed in groves, and liveoaks scattered here and there, 
which renders the scenery delightful and no inconsiderable 
portion of the land of superior soil. At the distance of 
sixty miles the couutr^^ becomes more elevated, rolling and 
approaching to hills, with fine water in abundance, every- 
where rivulets running over limestone rock, and beautifully 
diversifying the country with groves of timber along their 
courses, and the intervening prairies, hills and dales, where 
deer are everywhere seen, and wild horses frequent in larg% 
gangs, and in the winter season buffaloes beat down from 
the north and are here in large droves. 

Above the San Antonio road no country could be more 
delightful, alternately hill and rolling postoak groves of tim- 
ber, and intervening lawns, with rivulets meandering in every 
direction; the soil rich, black and fertile, most pleasant and 
delightful for the settlements of stock -raisers, vintners, etc., 
where all kinds of farming may be advantageously followed. 
This extensive and rich country, now in the possession of the 


Oomanchc and other wandering tribes of Indians, will ere 
long be nnder the cnltivation and in the occnpancy of an 
enlightened and intelligent community who will cause it to 
shine forth what it really is susceptible of and for which it 
was designed. That section between Eios Trinity and Brazos 
to the San Antonio road, although much of it prairie, has 
much more timber and the prairies less extensive than that 
between the Brazos and Colorado. That near the coast is 
much of it timbered bottoms, then succeed the prairies, 
then the postoak hills about the San Antonio road and 
considerable cedar timber, then the level or rolling table 
land, then the mountains and mines. The whole is we^ll 
watered and salubrious. 

Between the Eios Trinity and Keches, is very similar to 
the latter section mentioned. Between the Keches and 
Sabine near the coast, is fine bottoms and prairie. Above, 
the country is in general well timbered, and near the road a 
great portion of valuable yellow pitch-pine, above the road 
similar to the two former. 


The Spaniards are most admirable horsemen, having ac- 
customed themselves to catching mustang or wild horses, 
and even those raised by themselves are but little better 
^han wild, they as well as the mustangs being always caught 
by throwing the cabaresto or hair rope, which they will do 
with surprising art and dexterity, seldom missing at a dis- 
tance of thirty yards, and prefer the horse or other animal 
intended to be caught to be under full motion. When a 
horse is in the noose, the horseman, whose saddle is buckled 
as tight as can be with a strong hair girth and one end of 
the cabaresto wound around the saddle horn, falls back a 
little and passes on the other side of the mustang, dashes 
forward drawing hard on the cabaresto, which throws the 


mustang, buffalo or what else he has iu the noose. A second 
Spaniard who is always in company, is ready to lash and tie 
the creature thus caught before it can rise, and be ready for 
another. And in their sports of exercising, they will take 
after any of their own stock, which are almost perfectly 
wild, will catch a cow, steer or bull by the tail, fetch it a 
twist around their saddle horn, dashing past along side and 
throwing them heels over head and give chase to a new one. 
In this way their young men become expert in horsemanship^ 
also by practice in that of throwing the rope, which they 
begin while children. Almost every stock-raiser, for the pur- 
pose of raising young jacks the better, take colts from their 
dams and put young jacks to suckle in their place ; these are 
called proof jacks. The colts are left to live as they can, 
and serve for the children to practice on in throwing the 
rope, riding, etc., at which they become so expert as to rope 
almost every animal, bears, deer, etc. Even men are not 
exempt, as hordes of banditti infest the interior of the coun- 
try and rob travelers by roping them. Sometimes falling in 
company with them, riding along side, all at once throw the 
rope or cabaresto, and putting spur to their horse, drag the 
man or men off their horse at what distance they please and 
bind them or otherwise dispose of them at pleasure. 

The Indians, natives of the country, are not inferior to the 
Spaniards themselves in the art, but rope the Spaniards with 
whom they are, and have been since the conquering of Mexi- 
co, engaged in a war. That is the Comanches or ancient 
Mexicans, who never were subject to the Spanish yoke, but 
have sworn perpetual and eternal hatred and hostility to all 
Spaniards, remembering the wrongs of Montezuma, and 
boast of being the sons of Ahromack, and are determined to 
revenge the cruelties of their tormentors. They are uncon- 
querable, as being a traveling and itinerant people, very 
numerous, about 10,000 warriors, and annoy the Spaniards 
at various points, being possessed of a large extent of ter- 
ritory and at home everywhere. They are noble, generous 
and brave, and great friends to the Americans* They say they 
know not which is the greatest , nation, themselves or the 



Amerieaus (that is the United States i)eople of the north so- 
ealled in all the Southern States, by way of distinction from 
Spanish, French and Indians), and they are uncertain how a 
war would terminate between them, and wish ever to avoid. 
The Spanish Government made great preparation for a cam- 
paign this year, but has failed as the Comanches predicted, 
saying that for a century, they have been telling the same 
story, but have never verified it, and they consider them 
great liars. 

In the late struggle for liberty they were very active, mak- 
ing indiscriminate war either against Gauchapinsor patriots, 
so as it was only war against Spaniards, their eternal ene- 
mies, and readily united with the Mexicans against the 
royalists. On the 15th of May, instant, I was at La Bahia, 
and saw some of the men brought in who had been roped 
and dragged about, scalped, etc., as before described. 

Some small tribes of Indians who are friendly lo the Span- 
ish Government, who have been converted to the Bomau 
catholic faith through the missionary establishments — are 
notwithstanding, cannibals, devoting the head and heart of 
their enemies to the gods, and the body to themselves, and 
who have been no little detriment to the American settle- 
ments. I seeing some of them in La Bahia, one of whom 
came dashing forward and seized me by the hand saying 
distinctly in American, "how de do," adding in Spanish 
''mucho amigo." On my asking an intelligent Spaniard why 
they harbored them, he said they were good Indians and did 
no harm. I replied they killed Americans every opportunity 
they got. He said no, that a great many years ago, they 
made war upon them and killed all the old ones, and took 
the young ones to the missionaries^ who trained them and 
made good christians, very good christians of them, and 
they would not kill many Americans. But the Govern- 
ment permitted us and we have destroyed many of them 
and still go armed when in their range. 

A traveler in this country would make a ludicrous appear 
ance to an European, or those from the United States of the 
north. Equipped on a Spanish nag, caparisoned with a 


SpaDisli saddle with wooden stirrups of enormous weight, 
a bridle of a very singular construction, a bit that would 
break the jaw of any horse, and to any horse that is a little 
refractory, it proves a cruel curb: their nostrils distended, 
mouth wide open from the Spanish bits, eyes flashing -fire, 
foaming and prancing, and menacing destruction, the blood 
streaming from the lacerated mouth, and goaded sides. 
Sedate, grave and serious sits the unconcerned Spaniard in 
his saddle, with much composure, striking fire from his 
steel and flint to light his segar — then with much sang froid, 
applying the Spanish spur (four at five inches long, the 
rowel one inch or more in diameter), the beast is hurried 
through thick and thin, as the Spaniard can alike ride 
through thickets, brambles, prickly pear, etc., or open prai- 
rie, from his buckaree he has nothing to fear. 

Many are the surprising instances of the art of throwing 
the rope. It is practiced on almost every animal — the bear 
is not exempt, though the worst of all others. A gentle- 
man of respectability and veracity, informed me he saw one 
roped, and the Spaniard making off at full speed with the 
bear attached, the bear only tumbled down, and went to 
taking up rope sailor like, hand over hand, until he brought 
himself in contact with the horse, and the' Spaniard glad to 
release him, cut the rope and saved himself and horse — the 
horse's flesh was torn and bleeding. The Spaniard exclaim- 
ing, '*080 mucho diablo." [Bear the very devil.] They in 
fact, as well they may, consider the bear the worst and most 
dangerous animal to rope, though they frequently do it, 
when two or three are in company, as while the one is mak- 
ing off, the others are endeavoring to kill it with, their spears, 
etc., without danger, while it is thus too much engaged to 
give them battle. 



The two .ancient provinces of Coahuila and Texas com- 
pose the present State of Coahuila and Texas— -bounded on 
the east by the Sabine river, on the north by Eed Biver, up 
said river to latitude 35 degrees north, and longitude 103 
degrees and 30 minutes west of Greenwich, which rivers are 
also tjiie boundaries between the United States of Mexico 
and the United States of the north, thence following a south- 
easterly direction, to a point in latitude 30 degrees north, 
and longitude 102 degrees 20 minutes west, where it leaves 
the boundary line of the province of Texas, to encircle that 
of Coahuila ; taking a southwest direction it intersects the 
Eio Grande del Norte at the mouth of Eio Puerto, in latitude 
30 degrees and longitude 104 degrees 33 minutes, thence con- 
tinuing an irregular line to the boundary line between the 
royalty and the interior provinces, in latitude 24 deg. north, 
and longitude 105 west. 


A farmer from the northern country who is used to indus- 
try, and with no other force than his own and one or two 
hirelings, may commence in the first place — on a new planta- 
tion — about the first of November, and with a good ox team, 
may plow with one of the cast patent plows, which would 
be best, one-half an acre per day, and by the first of Febru- 
ary, could not fail of having thirty acres ready for planting, 
which put into corn in the month of February, and corn 
planted at this season would be no risk in calculating twenty- 
five bushel to the acre, which would make corn enough for 
his use and some to spare. After the planting, providing 
the sward was turned completely over, would want no more 
attention or working for the first year, and after planting, 


sweet potatoes could be attended to, which are all import- 
aut — as being at the same time a very great luxury, as well 
as the most nutritious and wholesome vegetable, supplying 
the place of bread, and in fact, making a very good living 
without either bread or meat, when milk and butter can be 
had, and many negroes are stinted to a bushel a week, and 
do good labor on them. I have myself for six months, in 
preference to eating corn bread, of which I am not fond, 
made my steady meals on the sweet potatoe, with gravy, 
, and my coffee, without bread or meat, which I never eat 
much of the latter, and never enjoyed better health in the 
southern country. About 'five hundred bushels to the acre 
can be raised. Almost all kind of vines do extraordinarily 
well — pumpkins and melons excel that of any other country 
I am acquainted with. Pumpkins spread o\eT the ground 
to a surprising degree, and it is confidently asserted by many 
farmers that four seeds, provided they all come and stand, 
is sufficient to the acre. Where there are trees in the field, 
the vines run all over them, and you will see suspended in 
the air from the branches of the trees large pumpkins a foot 
through, hanging all about your field, and seeming literally 
also to cover the ground. 

Muskmelons and water melons are very fine and large, and 
are a very pleasant beverage in a hot day. Cucumbers do 
well. Corn yields the best in comparison with other coun- 
tries of anything I am acquainted of the grain kind. South- 
ern climates not being so congenial as more northern for it, 
though one man can raise five times as much here as in the 
northen states, from the care of the cultivation of the land, 
and I may say ten times as much, as he may have double the 
time to plant and tend it, as corn planted from the first of 
February until the middle of July, will produce good crops 
and get ripe, if not prevented by drouth. Nearly one half 
the year is seed time. Oats produce beyond anything to be 
imagined. From the few specimens, we are induced to think 
no country will exceed in the raising of that grain. Eye 
also does exceedingly well, yet that and wheat, we are in- 
clined to believe, will be but little cultivated, as the more 


profitable crops of cotton and sugar will engross the atten- 
tion of the planters and flour is offered to us on such easy 
terms from Orleans, where the market is always glutted 
from the upper countries on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. 
The fig, orange and peach flourish here, and two kinds of 
grapes grow spontaneous. One kind — large, sour and thick- 
skinned, which grows high on trees, etc., in the bottoms — it is 
said, makes good brandy when distilled, but not good wine. 
The prairie grape is a small sized vine which runs on low 
bushes, grows in clusters and very sweet, which is easily 
cultivated, and would no doubt be an important business. 

The timber consists chiefly of haokberry, cotton wood, 
China tree, sycamore, pecan, black walnut, elm, cypress, 
wild peach, mulberry, ash, Spanish oak, liveoak, postoak 
and blackjaek, toothache wood, Spanish buckeye and 

The prickly pear grows to an enormous size, and is the 
device of the nation, one leaf serving as the base for a num- 
ber of others peculiar to that vegetable, representing each 
one a state, viz : Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila and Texas 
(or Tejas), Durango, Guanajuato, Mexico, Michoacan, 'New 
Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sonora y Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamau- 
lipas, Vera Cruz, Hualisco, Yucatan, Zacatecas, and the terri- 
tories of upper and lower California, Colima, Santa Fe, 
Tlaxcala. The tradition of the national device is this, whether 
true or not I cannot vouch, but not improbable that it was 
adopted from the following circumstance : that in the Eevo- 
lution the army both men and horses subsisted on it, while 
but for it all must have perished, as the fruit supplied the 
army and the leaf— if it may be called — which is an inch 
thick, and of an oval form, six inches or more longest diam* 
eter; when the prickly needle points are burned off it is sup- 
plied to the horses. It is also a happy representation of 
defence, lij^e the porcupine. 



At present we are free from duty from taxation of every 
kind, according to the colonization laws, and to continue for 
twelve years from August, 1824. This liberality, which cer- 
tainly is a great, one, is in consideration that we will contri- 
bute to the protection of the State against the hostile In- 
dians. And also of the gift of a league of land to each 
family with only the sum of $30 per league to government. 
That we will be heavily taxed at the expiration of the twelve 
years is not to be expected, as the native Spaniards do not 
complain, and we have it guaranteed that we shall be on an 
equal footing with them. The great and formidable barrier to 
emigration from the north is that no other religion is toler- 
ated than that of the Eoman Catholic, and to be sworn to 
an allegiance to support the Constitution and Government, 
which decrees it, is to a protestant somewhat against what 
he conceives compatible with a free government. But if we 
reflect for a moment, and look to the degraded and low con- 
dition that the system of the old government had reduced 
things — the common people kept in dark ignorance of every- 
thing but their own manner and mode of worship, to which 
they were most zealously attached, ikught to think and call 
all heresy that was not Eoman, and most of them supposing 
the protestants to deny Jesus Christ — it were vain for the 
more enlightened to speak of free toleration. The Eevolution 
had failed of gaining their independence had this been in- 
sisted on, but it was stretched to the extremity, as much as 
was safe at that time to urge. They have disarmed the 
church completely, depriving them of any part in the civil 
government. They are by the Constitution forbidden to hold 
any office of either trust or profit. A bold step ; what could 
they do more ? But what are we to expect ? It still does not 
answer for protestants. For four years no priests have been 
sent among us to celebrate marriages, or baptise infants or 
adults. What does this say, but that government does not 


intend it. Farther, the people since their liberty, begin to 
think for themselves, and at Gnadalajara of late, was issued 
a spirited address to the people, calling on them to finish the 
work of liberty — its motto " no half-way liberty" — inveighing 
against that part of the constitution which maintained intol- 
erance, and demanding liberty of conscience in matters of 
religion, as well as that which is already guaranteed — liberty 
of speech and press, and security of person and property. 

In general the prairie lands do not receive the attention of 
travelers and immigrants isirhich they invite ; as in the first 
place, it is less valuable from its not being immediately on 
the streams; and in the second and third, that it wants 
timber and will not produce so abundantly. But a due re- 
flection will convince any person that the former has not 
such decided advantages as might at first seem to promise 
over that of the latter, for the bottom or timbered land, ex- 
cept on tide water, can receive no advantages from naviga- 
tion, and as it regards timber, a ditch and hedge will be 
found superior to fencing. The atmosphere having such 
decomposing properties as to occasion a rot in the rail tim- 
ber in a very short time, and although that property does 
exist in the atmosphere, yet the growth of vegetables and 
particularly the large growth of timber is so rapid, as to 
make it coarse grained, low and brash to a surprising degree 
when compared with the same kind of northern growth, 
verifying in timber the proverb of the human — "Southern 
climates accelerate the growth of the human species, and 
shorten its duration." And as it regards fire wood and 
building, very little is needed for the first, and brick will 
supersede the demand of the second, and yet, if objections 
to this must exist, to obviate them, we need only cultivate 
the growth of timber and in less time than would be imag- 
ined would be supplied ; besides almost all our prairies are 
skirted and interspersed with mesquite, liveoak, etc.; on the 
high lands and along every branch or rivulet, is pecan, 
hackberry, etc., etc. We may add the custom, and the local- 
ity of the country justifies the practice of not having in- 
closures for stock, but a herdsman to superintend them : 


for when liuudrede of cattle, hoiBeB, sheep aud hogs, are 
owned by an individual, it is hardly to be expected he will 
confine them to a small space, when they may have the wide 
world, as it were, for a range. That it will not produce so 
abundantly may be admitted, though in a drought the deep 
loam prairies will produce altogether the best, and such 
prairies is by far the major part, though it is variable, and 
although black and rich in some places, the mixture of sand 
is an objection to its retaining moisture. And the security 
of being free from inundation in time of 'crop making may, I 
think, fairly be offset by the superiority of quantity produced 
when that accident does not happen. And for stock-raising 
it certainly has the most decided preference as to water. 
In general a sufficiency for stock is to be found in small 
branches, and wells are easily dug, and in general find good 
water at the depth of twenty or twenty-five feet It will be 
understood that I speak of the prairies removed from the 
neighborhood of the large streams, as all near those streams 
are generally included in the survey of what is called front 
leagues, and those removed from those waters are entirely 
overlooked, and generally esteemed not susceptible of set- 
tlement, but in fact the pleasantness of the situations on 
high rolling prairies, the quality of the soil (which is gener- 
ally very deep, black and rich, producing much better grass 
than near those rivers), and above all the health that must 
prevail, and induce settlement ; and although the rich sugar 
and cotton plantations will monopolize the rich bottoms on 
the margin of the rivers, and near the seaboard, yet the 
thrifty flourishing part of community will seek situations 
for health, wealth, and retirement on the high rolling prai- 
rie, and the country seats of the rich seaboard planters will 
be selected back, while their overseers will conduct their busi- 
ness on their plantations. These observations are general. 

As one very powerful argument in favor of the prairies and 
the quality of the soil and superiority of the grass, we may 
mention that the large gangs of mustangs, wild cattle aud 
buffalo, instead of being found near the coast and large 
rivers, it is most generally that they are found on the high 



pleasaut prairies, preferring the kinds and qualities of grass 
found there on which they get very fat. The wild horses 
are very numerous, in gangs of different sizes from twenty 
to three and four hundred. It is somewhat singular that 
they seem to have a commander-in-chief with his subalterns, 
an adjutant who brings up the rear, and a sentinel and a spy. 
The sentinel gives the alarm, and, a spy is sent to reconnoiter 
and examine the nature and force of an enemy ; and coming 
within a distance deemed prudent, either stops and looks, or if 
satisfied without, takes a wheel circuitously back and at a 
snort and wheel s^nd a flourish of the tail, the whole force 
break and flee. The first instance I ever witnessed of the 
kind, was between the Colorado and Ouadalupe rivers, hav- 
ing some wagons and pack horses in company, proceeding 
to the mouth of the St. Mark to lay off and settle the pres- 
ent town of Oonzales. I was some distance in advance of 
the balance of the company with my compass surveying the 
road, as we went on a herd of mustangs on an eminence to 
our right sent out a spy, when he came with speed, rapidity 
and majesty, answering the descriptions of the war horse 
described in the bible, his flowing main and tail spread to 
the wind, his nostrils distended, fleet and strong limbs 
exerted, his neck clothed in thunder, approached me direct. 
I being unarmed, was about to leave my horse. While I was 
waiting the result, he whirled, flourished his long tail and at 
the signal the whole herd that had been watching the result 
took to flight over the thundering plain, while the spy would 
now and then wheel to view my movements as he made after 
the herd. Further in the interior, I am credibly told, may 
be seen herds not broken in their continued march at full 
speed, continuing day after day, which must give us an idea 
of numbers immeasurable. 

APPKNDir. 195 


The winter is by far the most agreeable season for either 
man or beast, no snow and frost seldom, the grass continu- 
ing good all winter in the bottoms and several kinds of grass 
on the prairies ; the mesqnit, the buffalo and the curly grass 
are good in winter on the prairie. The winter or water grass 
on the bottoms becomes green, tender and luxuriant in winter, 
the wild oats and rye, the wild parsley and several other 
kinds of herbage spring up in the timbered bottoms, which 
supply stock in winter. In that season neither is the cold or 
heat disagreeable, and the sky generally serene and clear, 
rendering ^this the most delightful season immaginable for 
labor, and the industrious have an ample field for the display 
of enterprise for preparing for cotton, corn or sugar crops, 
etc. Winter can be said to commence about the middle of 
December, and spring middle of February. 


Milam's colony is bounded on the south or southeast, by 
DeWitt and Austin ; on the east and northeast, by the Colo- 
rado ; on the west, by the Gaudalupe ; on the north, by a 
parallel line forty-five miles distant from the first mentioned 
or San Antonio road. 



On page 5, sixth line from top, 1823 should read 1821. 

Page 6, fifth line from top, for " Lemantoma " read San 

Page 18, fifteenth line from top, read " skins of deer and 
other animals from top to bottom." 

Page 99, the head-line " Letter to God's Children " should 
be Letter to my Ood'CMldren. 

Page 111, nineteenth line from top, the words " over fifty 
years ago '' should be included in the preceding sentence. 

Page 115, eighth line from bottom, the date 1574 should 
be 1554. 





Died at his residence in Connersville, May 27, 1859, He was 
born in Kentucky, A. D., 1796, and immigrated to Indiana, 
then a territory, in 1811. Early thereafter he settled in 
Connersville, where he resided until his death. He was as- 
sociated in early life in the mercantile business with Solomon 
Harlan, John Conner and others, of the first settlers of this 
place, and spent the best years of his life as a merchant. 
After acquiring a competency he retired, like a philosopher, 
to enjoy the fruits of his labor. 

His manhood has been spent in this town, and his 
gies have been directed to the promotion of the true inter- 
ests of the country. He was an early friend and the first 
president of the White Water Valley Canal Company, and 
continued acting president thereof, until the completion of 
the canal ; was the first president of the Fayette County 
Bank, and continued as such, during its existence in busi- 
ness, and until the organization of the bank of the State of 
Indiana, when he was chosen president of the branch thereof 
located at Connersville, which position he retained until the 
bank went into active operation, when at his own request, he 
retired from the presidency. All of which positions he 
filled with credit to himself and satisfaction to those inter- 
ested, exhibiting under all circumstances most excellent 
judgment and business qualities. Thus has passed away 


the oldest iuhabitant of Connersville. He came here when 
it was a wild anbrokeu forest, inhabitated by the Indian and 
wild deer, the rude wigwam standing where the stately man- 
sion now marks the progress of civilization ; has seen the 
forest give way to the woodman's ax, witnessed the building 
up of the town and country round about, until it is almost 
without a rival in beauty and magnificence ; has seen a gene- 
ration come and go, as he has gone, to '* that bourne from 
whence no traveler returns." 

In all the relations of life he manifested those stern and 
manly qualities that characterize the pioneers of our coun- 
try — open, frank, generous, free, independent and undis- 
guised; as an honest man, without a spot or blemish. Few 
men have lived so long and acted as conspicuous a part in 
society, against whose integrity the breath of suspicion has 
blown so lightly. He lived and died a splendid example, 
" that an honest man is the noblest work of God." 

He died in the fullness of years, loved by those who knew 
him best, respected by all, hated by none — leaving a host of 
friends and relations to mourn his departure. 



DIKI) 0(n\ 26, 1841, AGED 49 YEARS, 9 MONTHS, 

«EING BORN IN 1792. 

** He had a head to contrive, 
A heart to conceive, 
A hand to execute — 
Angels could no more." 

ON MR. helm's side OF MONUMENT: 

^^His life was gentle and the elements so mixed in him, 
That nature might stand up and say, 
* This was a man.' " 


" ■ ■ ». • . ■ 

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